Saturday, April 26, 2008

Psychology - Career

Some Career Choices for the Psychology Student


When you earn a BS or BA degree in psychology, you make yourself attractive to many employers. Employers like psychology graduates because these graduates bring many valuable resources. These resources include:

* an extensive understanding of human behavior that can be applied in many different settings
* well developed listening and communication skills
* an ability to collaborate with a wide variety of people
* an openness to learn new knowledge and skills
* an ability to gather, organize, critique, synthesize, and evaluate information
* an ability to analyze and solve problems
* a knowledge of basic statistics
* excellent computer skills in word processing, graphics, and statistics
* and an ability to write and speak effectively.

Fields of Work

When you earn an undergraduate degree in psychology, you can find work in a wide variety of fields. These fields include:

* Business and Industry
* College and University Administration and Services
* Education
* Human Resources and Training
* Law Enforcement
* Residential Work and Day Care
* Probation and Correctional Treatment
* Science and Research

Individuals in these fields provide direct and indirect services to help a wide variety of clients better manage their problems, resolve crises, take advantage of their opportunities, get along with others, and obtain needed benefits and services. Workers in this field also take care of a variety of administrative, record keeping, and financial tasks. They work in a wide variety of settings, such as hospitals, rehabilitation programs, outpatient clinics, shelters, and group homes.

Going on to Graduate School

Once you earn your bachelor's degree in psychology, you are prepared to apply to many different types of graduate programs at both the masters and doctoral level.

Earning a masters degree generally takes 2 years of full-time study. Earning a doctoral degree generally takes 4 to 8 years of full-time study and may entail additional supervised professional experience.

As a psychology graduate, you can also apply to graduate programs in many fields other than psychology. In fact, more psychology graduates go to graduate school in fields outside of psychology than within psychology. Some of these fields include law, ministry and theology, business, sociology and education. With additional course work you can also apply to nursing and medical schools.

As you can see, with an undergraduate degree in psychology, you can further your education in many different fields and qualify for a wide range of graduate programs. This makes the degree an extremely versatile one. The psychology department at Villa Julie college reviews all these options with you in our sophomore-level course called Professional Development. Additionally, if you decide you want to go to graduate school, the psychology faculty will help you navigate the application process.


CAREERS WITH AN UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE

Admissions Counselor - Admissions Counselors' careers might include conducting interviews, answering correspondence and telephone inquiries, advising prospective students and their parents on admissions policies and academic requirements, providing high school and community college counselors, prospective students and parents, faculty and staff with information on admissions policies, procedures and decisions. Other duties include: assisting in on-campus recruiting activities, reviewing applications, writing letters and reports to area high schools, and working with other admissions staff.

Compensation/Benefits Administrator - Develops and designs compensation and benefit programs that help organizations attract and motivate employees. Within these programs, some activities performed are: setting up pay structures, reviewing other benefit programs, setting up and administering wage/salary and benefit programs.

Criminal Justice/Probation and Corrections - Individuals who work in probation supervise offenders who have been released from prison on parole or probation. They also conduct pretrial investigations, arrange for substance abuse treatment and job training, write presenting reports for the court, make sentencing recommendations and testify in court for their clients.

Individuals who work in corrections works in either jails and prisons or in parole and probation agencies. They write and evaluate treatment plans, write case reports, and plan educational and training programs.

Education - One of the most obvious career fields for a recent college graduate is education. Education is a broad field itself, ranging from traditional classroom teaching at the secondary and collegiate levels to more creative teaching formats.

Employee Relations Specialist - Interviews employees to gather information on their attitudes towards work environments and supervision received in order to have solutions to any problems that they may mention.

Event Planner - Event planners arrange, implement and negotiate all of the logistical arrangements for conventions, parties, conferences, concerts, or any other kind of social, recreational, educational, cultural, political or governmental event.

Guidance Counselor - Vocational, personal, and educational counselors generally work with individual students and families to provide career, personal, and educational counseling -- including college admissions, entrance testing, and financial aid. Counseling usually requires a masters' degree in counseling and state certification. Often subject teachers will become counselors.

Human Resources - Human Resource personnel are the mediators between employers and employees. They have to be organized, analytical, business-minded, and interested in serving people's needs.

Insurance Agent - Contacts new prospects to sell insurance and explains features and merits of policies offered. Suggests changes that should be made in client's existing insurance program.

Loan Officer - Examines, evaluates, and authorizes approval of customer application for lines of credit (credit cards, households, commercial, or real estate). May also buy or sell contracts and supervise loan approvals.

Management - Entry-level management jobs often appeal to a variety of students who are unsure of the direction they want their careers to take. They may oversee contracts, schedules, budgets, inventory, research data, and Human Resource requests. They are often the focal point for customer communications and interface.

Marketing, Sales and Advertising - People working in marketing, sales and advertising are involved with the most important activity of any business or institution--the effective and profitable delivery of a service or product. Managers in these areas supervise the various departments, devise the marketing strategy, and oversee promotions and sales. They must be organized and enthusiastic about the product and company. While employers value business courses, internships, and experience, many seek personnel who also have a strong liberal arts background.

Public Relations - Public relations specialists establish, maintain, and promote the image and reputation of a business or institution. They insure good communication between the business and the consumer, the community, and government. They must be tactful and able to balance the interests of various groups. They provide information about the company and, depending on size and the nature of the business, they handle all areas of publicity connected with the business. An internship is a good way to gain experience and learn the responsibilities of this job.

Researcher - Straight out of college, students may find employment opportunities doing research for documentary films, brochures and exhibits at historic sites and museums, and documents to help business or government agencies understand their past when making decisions that will shape the future. Graduate study may also be required for certain research positions.

Student Services - Working in the field of student services usually implies a job on a college campus in the area of campus life. Student services departments develop, direct and supervise the programs for student life within the college or residential community.

Technical Writer - Technical writers must understand the field they are writing about and be able to translate that information into language that is easy to understand. They write manuals, instructions and proposals, and promotion materials. They also research, write, and edit technical material, illustrations, catalogs, and charts. Additionally, technically writers must have the ability to handle multiple projects, and couple with that a "get the job done" attitude.

CAREERS WITH A GRADUATE DEGREE

Academic Psychologist - To become an academic psychologist, you need to earn a doctorate in one of the major subfields in psychology. These subfields include clinical psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology, community psychology, health and biological psychology, personality, cognition, learning and research.

As an academic psychologist, you will work, most likely, in a college or university, teaching students and doing research. With additional experience, you can also move into academic administration.

Experimental or Research Psychologist - To become an experimental or research psychologist, you need to earn either a masters or doctoral degree in experimental or research psychology. You can then apply your knowledge and skills in research design and analysis in a wide range of settings: colleges and universities, businesses, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, and the government.

Forensic Psychologist - To become a forensic psychologist, you need to earn either a masters or doctoral degree in forensic psychology or receive special training after obtaining a graduate degree in another area of psychology.

As a forensic psychologist, you can apply psychology to the law, the legal system, and law enforcement. You can do assessments and evaluations of offenders, screen personnel, consult, do research, serve as an expert witness in court, profile criminals, and provide clinical services to offenders. You can work with the courts, attorneys, the police and other institutions involved with security, correctional facilities, prisons, and organizations that make public policy.

Industrial-Organizational or Applied Psychologist - To become an Industrial-Organizational (I-O) or Applied Psychologist, you need to earn either a masters or a doctoral degree in I-O or applied psychology.

As an I-O or applied psychologist, you can help businesses recruit, hire, retain, manage, and promote their employees; improve productivity; increase employee satisfaction, commitment, and motivation; perform research; and plan management policy.

Licensed Psychologist - To become a licensed psychologist, you need to earn a doctoral degree in either clinical psychology or counseling psychology.

As a licensed psychologist, you can provide psychotherapy, do psychological testing, teach in a college or university, do research, administrate a wide variety of programs, and serve as a consultant to schools, businesses, the courts, and non-profit organizations.

Professional Counselor - Generally, to become a professional counselor, you will need to earn at least a master's degree in one of the many different types of counseling programs.

As a counselor, you can provide counseling and psychotherapy to help a wide variety of people better manage a wide variety of problems.

There are many different types of counselors. Some of these types are:

* Marriage & Family Therapists
* School & Educational Counselors
* Mental Health Counselors
* Rehabilitation Counselors
* Career, Employment & Vocational Counselors
* Gerontological Counselors
* Substance Abuse Counselors

School Psychologist - To become a school psychologist, you need to earn either a masters or a doctoral degree in school psychology.

As a school psychologist, you can help children and adolescents succeed in school by addressing their academic, social, and emotional needs. You will spend most of your time assessing students and consulting with parents, teachers, and school administrators. You may also do some individual counseling, group and organizational interventions, research, and public presentations. Most likely, you will work in the public schools.

Social Worker - To become a social worker, you need to earn a MSW (Masters of Social Work) degree.

As a social worker, you can assist children, adults, and families better manage a wide variety of issues and problems. In addition, you can administrate programs, develop policy, write grants, do research, and even set up your own private practice in counseling.


- http://apps.vjc.edu/career-choices/psychology.cfm
50 Best Jobs in America
What makes a great job? High pay. Great prospects. And work that--even on a tough day--gives you a charge.
Money Magazine
Tara Kalwarski, Daphne Mosher, Janet Paskin and Donna Rosato
April 25, 2006: 4:49 PM EDT


(MONEY Magazine) - Forget "plastics." Today's career advice, in a word: computers. In two words: health care. Job opportunities in those fields will abound over the next decade, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. And many of them will offer high pay--and high satisfaction too. That explains why, by the reckoning of MONEY and the compensation experts at Salary.com, technology and health care account for nearly a third of the 50 Best Jobs in America. Besides crunching numbers on job growth and pay, we graded jobs on stress level, flexibility in work environment and hours, creativity, and ease of entry and advancement in the field. America's top job? Look to your right and read why that man is smiling. This Guy Has the Best Job in America Don't You Just Hate Him? Mark Dochtermann, 34 DIRECTOR OF TECHNOLOGY ELECTRONIC ARTS

"When I saw my first computer, it was love at first sight. As a kid I spent a lot of time on a Commodore 64, writing my own programs, figuring out games, hacking. You can learn an awful lot about programming doing that. I majored in computer engineering but never thought I could work in the game industry--it was a dream job.
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After college I sent one of my creations to a small game company. Next thing I knew, I was their programmer. Since then I've built a career in the "first-person shooter" category with games like Duke Nukem 3D. During the tech boom, when others left games for the money in start-ups, I stayed. I make a good living, and I'd rather work on a game I don't care for than write code for a financial company.

I'm building a product that entertains. Unlike engineers in commerce or aerospace, I can push the envelope without someone getting hurt. Still, there's stress. The worst is a bug or defect. And you can't waste time tweaking that last whiz-bang feature, given the market pressures. But there's no better feeling than seeing your game on the shelves.

Today I manage a team of 65. The hours remain a challenge, and I still do a lot of coding. It's important to work with the group, and it's the best way to stay on the cutting edge."

1 Software engineer

$80,500 AVERAGE PAY 46% 10-YEAR GROWTH 44,800 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS B FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY A EASE OF ENTRY C

WHY IT'S GREAT Software engineers are needed in virtually every part of the economy, making this one of the fastest-growing job titles in the U.S. Even so, it's not for everybody. Designing, developing and testing computer programs requires some pretty advanced math skills and creative problem-solving ability. If you've got them, though, you can work and live where you want: Telecommuting is quickly becoming widespread. The profession skews young--the up-all-night-coding thing gets tired--but consulting and management positions aren't hard to come by once you're experienced.

WHAT'S COOL Cutting-edge projects, like designing a new video game or tweaking that military laser. Extra cash from freelance gigs. Plus, nothing says cool like great prospects.

WHAT'S NOT Jobs at the biggest companies tend to be less creative (think Neo, pre-Matrix). Outsourcing is a worry. Eyestrain and back, hand and wrist problems are common.

TOP-PAYING JOB Release engineers, who are responsible for the final version of any software product, earn six figures.

EDUCATION Bachelor's degree, but moving up the ladder often requires a master's.

2 College professor

$81,500 AVERAGE PAY 31% 10-YEAR GROWTH 95,300 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS B FLEXIBILITY A CREATIVITY A EASE OF ENTRY C "You have a lot of interaction with creative, interesting, motivated people, and you have new ideas all the time. Every time you go to class, something unexpected happens." --JEAN ANN LINNEY, 55, VICE PRESIDENT AND ASSOCIATE PROVOST AT NOTRE DAME

WHY IT'S GREAT While competition for tenure-track jobs will always be stiff, enrollment is rising in professional programs, community colleges and technical schools--which means higher demand for faculty. It's easier to break in at this level, and often you can teach with a master's and professional experience. Demand is especially strong in fields that compete with the private sector (health science and business, for example). The category includes moonlighting adjuncts, graduate TAs and college administrators.

WHAT'S COOL Professors have near-total flexibility in their schedules. Creative thinking is the coin of the realm. No dress code!

WHAT'S NOT The tick-tick-tick of the tenure clock; grading papers; salaries at the low end are indeed low.

TOP-PAYING JOB University presidents' pay can hit $550,000 or more, but most make about half that.

EDUCATION Master's or professional degree; Ph.D. for most tenured jobs.

3 Financial adviser

$122,500 AVERAGE PAY 26% 10-YEAR GROWTH 6,100 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS C FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY B EASE OF ENTRY B "Most people don't know their goals. I know how helpless I felt years ago when my husband died young. It's the best feeling to bring people from defining their goals to realizing them." --DEBORAH FELDMAN, 55, CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER, CHICAGO

WHY IT'S GREAT Twenty years ago, no one ever said, "I want to be a financial adviser when I grow up." Now there are nearly 300 college programs for financial planning, and M.B.A.s, lawyers and accountants are jumping to this lucrative but more people-friendly profession. As company pensions die out and Americans increasingly have to manage their own retirement savings, financial planning is no longer just for the rich. And with Gen X-ers entering their peak earning years and boomers nearing retirement, business will get better still.

WHAT'S COOL If you have a knack for numbers and a way with people, you can use Wall Street skills without selling your soul. You can work for yourself, for a small shop or for a giant financial services firm.

WHAT'S NOT Compliance rules mean lots of paperwork. Stress? You have to build a practice from the ground up.

TOP-PAYING JOB Advisers who manage client portfolios earn $200,000-plus.

EDUCATION A college degree, plus certification and continuing education.

4 Human-resources manager

$73,500 AVERAGE PAY 23% 10-YEAR GROWTH 32,300 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS B FLEXIBILITY A CREATIVITY B EASE OF ENTRY A "Our ability to attract the right employees, keep them engaged and provide intellectual stimulation is what differentiates us. My role: Create a culture that makes us the employer of choice." --SEAN WOODROFFE, 42, SENIOR V.P. OF HR, FINANCIAL GUARANTEE INSURANCE CO.

WHY IT'S GREAT At more and more companies, HR is no longer about benefits administration and the employee newsletter. Those tasks are increasingly outsourced, and directors and v.p.s are considered strategic planners. Even lower-level managers are expected to design employee programs that also benefit the bottom line. International HR and compliance are especially hot. There's a wide variety of work, from self-employed benefits specialists to corporate recruiters and HR generalists.

WHAT'S COOL The mission: to make work more rewarding for workers. You help shape corporate culture and strategy.

WHAT'S NOT Fighting the "fluffy HR" stereotype; firing people.

TOP-PAYING JOB Senior HR directors make around $285,000; at the C-suite level, it's more like $1 million-plus.

EDUCATION Bachelor's degree, often followed by master's level work or professional certification.

5 Physician assistant

$75,000 AVERAGE PAY 50% 10-YEAR GROWTH 4,000 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS C FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY B EASE OF ENTRY C "We can focus on medicine and spend time with patients. To shake the hand of someone who was nearly dead or cure someone of an illness, there is no feeling like that in the world." --LAWRENCE HERMAN, 52, PHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT, HOLBROOK, N.Y.

WHY IT'S GREAT For most doctors, the worst part of their job is filling out paperwork and battling insurers. Physician's assistants get to skip all that. Under a doctor's supervision, they provide routine health care--conducting physical exams, ordering lab tests, prescribing medications, treating illnesses. PAs can specialize, from the E.R. to pediatrics to orthopedics, and they can switch fields. Thanks to an aging population and demand for more cost-effective care, this job offers a level of security other professions can't match.

WHAT'S COOL Doctors' work, bankers' hours. PAs average 35 to 40 hours a week, and they can work part time and in a variety of settings.

WHAT'S NOT You're not the ultimate decision maker on patient treatment; there's little room for advancement.

TOP-PAYING JOB Specialists in cardiothoracic surgery earn over $100,000.

EDUCATION Four years of college, two to three years of training in an accredited program, plus national exam for certification.

6 Market research analyst

$82,500 AVERAGE PAY 20% 10-YEAR GROWTH 16,000 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS C FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY C EASE OF ENTRY B

WHY IT'S GREAT If you want to know what the next big thing is, this is your field. Before launching a product or service, companies turn to market research analysts who collect and evaluate data about consumer wants, needs and buying habits. You get to work on a huge variety of projects: In a single day you might run a taste test on a new vodka flavor, evaluate a rebranding campaign for a hot dog and analyze political polling data.

WHAT'S COOL Testing products before they hit the market. You talk to lots of people and get to ask them personal questions you wouldn't dare pose at a party.

WHAT'S NOT Being mistaken for a telemarketer; deadlines; number crunching.

TOP-PAYING JOB A senior exec or partner in a consulting firm can earn more than $200,000.

EDUCATION B.A.; M.A. in statistics helps.

7 Computer/IT analyst

$83,500 AVERAGE PAY 36% 10-YEAR GROWTH 67,300 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS C FLEXIBILITY C CREATIVITY D EASE OF ENTRY B

WHY IT'S GREAT Seems like the entire world is at the mercy of information technology folks, thanks to the rapid spread of computers and swell of the Internet. And all of these jobs pay well, from desktop support technician to Webmaster to database wonk. Entry-level analysts make $60,000 and above. Senior database specialists and IT managers command six-figure salaries and decent bonuses. A bachelor's degree is enough to get started.

WHAT'S COOL Telecommuting and freelance gigs abound. Plus: e-mail snooping!

WHAT'S NOT Carpal tunnel syndrome; outsourcing will mean fewer entry-level and nonspecialized jobs.

TOP-PAYING JOB Network operations directors, who are responsible for a company's intranet, earn $250,000-plus.

EDUCATION From a B.S. to a Ph.D.

8 Real estate appraiser

$66,000 AVERAGE PAY 23% 10-YEAR GROWTH 4,500 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS A FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY D EASE OF ENTRY B

WHY IT'S GREAT The housing boom has meant beaucoup bucks for appraisers in recent years, but the field hasn't gotten as crowded as real estate brokerage. And because valuations are needed whenever any property is sold, mortgaged, insured, taxed or developed, there's going to be work even when the market slows. A quarter of appraisers have steady nine-to-five government gigs assessing property for tax purposes.

WHAT'S COOL Abundant self-employment opportunities. Research isn't the pain that it used to be, thanks to the Internet.

WHAT'S NOT There's still a lot of legwork; advancement is limited.

TOP-PAYING JOB Collateral appraisers, who work with lenders, earn $130,000-plus.

EDUCATION Bachelor's degree; licensing and certification requirements vary by state.

9 Pharmacist

$92,000 AVERAGE PAY 25% 10-YEAR GROWTH 10,100 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS B FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY C EASE OF ENTRY C

WHY IT'S GREAT Demand for pharmacists is exploding as the population ages and new medications are developed. By 2010 the number of prescriptions filled is expected to rise 27% to 4.1 billion. Pharmacists also give advice on over-the-counter meds and help patients manage chronic conditions like diabetes. About 60% work in retail settings, the rest in hospitals and nursing homes and in research or sales for drug companies.

WHAT'S COOL Pharmacists are in such demand that graduates today can expect multiple job offers, signing bonuses and $90K-plus salaries.

WHAT'S NOT Dealing with insurers and angry patients; limited advancement.

TOP-PAYING JOB Pharmacists at major retail chains can earn six figures.

EDUCATION A doctor of pharmacy degree program is six years long.

10 Psychologist

$66,500 AVERAGE PAY 19% 10-YEAR GROWTH 6,800 ANNUAL JOB OPENINGS STRESS C FLEXIBILITY B CREATIVITY A EASE OF ENTRY C

WHY IT'S GREAT Feel stressed or anxious? So do a lot of people. That and the decreasing stigma attached to seeking help have fueled demand for psychological services. The pay is good, the hours are flexible, and it's pretty hard to top the psychological benefit that comes with bringing relief to a troubled mind. Greater awareness of how mental health and behavior issues affect learning makes school psychology a particularly fast-growing specialty.

WHAT'S COOL Shrinks are four times as likely to be self-employed as other professionals.

WHAT'S NOT Years of training; stiff competition for slots in graduate programs; insurers.

TOP-PAYING JOB Clinical and counseling psychologists can earn $95,000-plus.

EDUCATION Ph.D. and one-year internship; to be a school psychologist, three years of graduate study and a one-year internship.

HOW WE DID IT

Â

In This Issue

• Profiles of the 10 Best Jobs in America

• Details on compensation and growth, plus job-satisfaction grades, for the top

50 careers

• Results from the online survey of 26,000 workers by CNNMoney.com and

Salary.com

Open the gatefold that follows page 97.

On CNNMoney.com

• The stats on more than 200 top jobs

• Salary.com's Salary Wizard, which provides local pay rates for the best jobs

and thousands of others

• More from our online survey

Go to cnnmoney.com/bestjobs

I LIKE MY JOB: 63% of respondents to a MONEY/Salary.com

survey rated their job satisfaction as 5 or higher, on a scale of 1 to 7.

BUT IT'S TOUGH: 56% rated on-the-job stress as 5 or higher. Biggest gripes:

"too much work" and "no room to advance."

STUCK IN THE OFFICE: 67% of dissatisfied workers said they can't

telecommute.

OUT OF THE CAR: 64% of the most satisfied workers had short commutes. Top of page
From the May 1, 2006 issue

--- http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/moneymag_archive/2006/05/01/8375749/index.htm


How much money does a psychologist earn?
In: Salary and Pay Rates
Psychologists' Earnings

It varies - depending on location, experience, education, etc.

According to http://www.apa.org/monitor/mar00/facts.html about $60,000 - $80,000+ - information is almost six years old though.

According to http://swz.salary.com/salarywizard/layouthtmls/swzl_compresult_national_HC07000044.html generally $65,000 - $85,000

According to http://www.bls.gov/k12/social04.htm $1138,000 - $1165,000

Here is more input:

* There are WIDE variations in part because psychologist is a fairly broad term - pay is going to vary depending on where one practices and what kind of practice one has, not to mention education, etc. For instance, a psychologist in NY is going to make a lot more money, probably, than a psychologist in a small town in the Appalachian mountains. On the other hand the latter's cost of living is MUCH lower. Also, you don't state what country you are talking about. I just assumed USA, because it was easier. I just went into Google and searched with the terms psychologist and pay. You might also want to check with your local library. Narrow down your question, if possible, for more accurate results.

* The median expected salary for a typical psychologist in the United States is $72,487.

* There are too many different ranges of psychology to put it simply. But, generally, they get that money flowin'! I'm suggesting around $50,000+ salary. It most definitely could be higher but it depends in what field of study and if the demand is high. However, that's if your willing to spend several years on psychology education. But it all "pays off" and it's definitely worth it.

* Most careers in pyschiatry earn up to about $163,144. Due to the fact that psychiatrists are doctoral level professionals you would or should be expecting to make up to more than 100k.

* Psychiatry is much different than psychology. A psychiatrist is a medical doctor that can prescribe medicine to his/her patients. Most psychiatrists no longer provide therapy but tend to treat mental disorders by prescribing and managing medication. A psychologist holds a PhD or a PsyD (Doctor of Psychology) and treats mental disorders using psychotherapy. The tend to make much less than a psychiatrist. Depending on where they work...(private practice, hospitals, schools) psychologist salaries range from 20,000 to well, well over 100,000. There is no real median.

* Psychologists can be paid very different salaries and rates. Some of the best therapists charge their clients hundreds of dollars per hour. Counselors at clinics and non-profit organizations might make minimum wage. The best income in the field goes to psychiatrists, who have an MD.

* Some psychologists work for the state in administrative positions, evaluating people at prisons and mental health facilities. Others may work at state employment service or other state facilities that need psychologists. The specific dollar numbers vary from state to state. Some psychologists work for private industry and some are self employed. The pay scale varies greatly, partially depending on the opportunities that came to the psychologist and partly depending on the skill of the psychologist. Some psychologists who work in a private office can make a very good living, but like most professions, only the best will be able to make the top dollars. If you aren't very good you won't get many customers in a private practice situation. If you ARE very good, you can set your own price and you'll still get people pounding on your door to give you money.

* The median salary for a psychologist in Denver, Co for example is $78, 668 per year. Try www.monster.com and you can refine your search to any city in the US. The career section allows you to search for this data and its free.

* The range can vary from $20,000 a year to $100,000 a year, depending on what and where they practice. Check out salary.com or the occupational outlook handbook online for all kinds of salaries.

--- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_money_does_a_psychologist_earn



Guide to Psychology Jobs
Find the top resources for a rewarding career in psychology
By LaRita M. Heet



Info on Psychology Jobs

* Licensing is required in order to pursue a psychology career.
* Many psychology degree programs allow you to specialize in a particular area of psychology.
* Search online listings for psychology jobs in your specialty.



According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the overall employment of psychologists is expected to grow faster than other occupations through 2014. Whether you’re considering pursuing a career in psychology, or want to work toward a specific psychology degree, it’s never too soon – or too late – to look into psychology education, psychology internship programs or psychology career opportunities.

Here are the top things to know about a career in psychology:

1. Psychology licensing requirements and psychology internship mandates vary by state and by psychology degree.
2. Find psychology jobs, psychology internship programs and career advice through psychology associations and organizations.
3. A career in psychology may include counseling jobs, social work jobs, research appointments, academic positions and consulting jobs.



Action Steps
The best contacts and resources to help you get it done

A psychology degree and a license are required to pursue a career in psychology For your psychology education, choose colleges and universities that also offer career placement opportunities. Professional continuing education and state licensing are also required for psychologists.

I recommend: At All Star Directories’ All Psychology Schools, you can find traditional colleges and universities offering psychology degree programs as well as online institutions offering opportunities for a psychology education. For information about your state licensing requirements, check out the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards.

Participate in psychology internship programs and obtain certification Before landing psychology jobs, you usually have to complete some form of psychology internship. In addition, you may want to seek certification as a specialist as you pursue your career in psychology.

I recommend: The Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) provides a directory where you can search for psychology internship programs or postdoctoral programs. For information about psychology degree certifications, visit the American Board of Professional Psychology.

Take advantage of psychology career resources The American Psychological Association (APA) accredits doctoral training and advanced degree programs to prepare you for clinical psychology jobs, school counseling jobs or social work career. The APA also offers continuing psychology education resources and psychology career assistance.

I recommend: Visit the American Psychological Association (APA) for numerous psychology career resources. The APA’s Online Career Center, PsycCareers, is a great resource for all things related to a career in psychology – you can post your résumé, search listings of psychology jobs and find professional development opportunities.

Pursue a specialized psychology career according to your interests Psychology specialties include forensic, clinical, industrial and educational psychology, as well as marriage and family counseling, school counseling and social work. Search for psychology jobs where you can use your specialized psychology education and training.

I recommend: Go to PracticeLink, the online physician job bank and search for psychology jobs through the “Physician Job Search.” The Social Psychology Network’s Online Psychology Career Center is a terrific one-stop shop for job seekers, offering listings of psychology jobs, psychology internship programs and psychology career resources. Find counseling and social work resources at Business.com.

Search for psychology jobs in myriad industries A career in psychology doesn't always involve counseling jobs. You can also find jobs in psychology as a researcher, an academic or as a consultant to other industries.

I recommend: For a modest registration fee, Jobs in Psychology lets you search thousands of psychology jobs in a variety of industries and settings.
Tips & Tactics
Helpful advice for making the most of this Guide

* Earning an advanced psychology degree takes time - four years for a Bachelor's degree, two years for a Master's degree and four to six years for a Doctoral degree.
* Get help creating your résumé from psychology career specialists, colleagues or faculty advisors.
* When looking for psychology jobs, make sure your personality matches that of the institution or employer.

-- http://www.business.com/directory/health_care/mental_health/psychology/employment/


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Specific

Some Exciting Areas
in Applied Psychology


Listed in the left-hand panel are ten exciting areas in applied psychology that you may want to consider in career planning. Many areas are inherently interdisciplinary, requiring study or specific courses outside of psychology.








Aviation

Clinical/Counseling

Consumer Behavior

Education

Environmental Issues

Health

Human Factors

Legal Issues

Sports

Workplace Issues/Industrial Organizational

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Careers in Industrial Organizational Psychology
Introduction

INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY is the study of behavior in work settings. I/O psychology is very important in the workplace for promoting productive worker attitudes and behaviors and for selecting and promoting candidates in the most effective fashion . More and more companies are hiring I/O psychologists to come in and help revamp certain aspects of their company. It seems that today there is a great demand for equal employment, equal pay and an enjoyable yet productive environment. With these thoughts in mind, the demand for I/O psychologists is increasing rapidly. With this increase it is important that people have a general understanding of how I/O psychology came to be, how to become an I/O psychologist and what the future is expecting of I/O psychologists.

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A Brief History

I/O psychology is a relatively recent subfield of psychology. In fact it did not become fully productive until about the late 1920's. Before the late 1920's many people had started to improve the workplace. Differential psychology, which became popular during WW I, was the start of improving the workplace. It focused in on how people are different but was not very successful in helping with ones job. The second idea was experimental psychology. This branch attempted to treat everyone as the same and tried to define laws in how people are similar. It too failed. The third idea was scientific management. This was the idea that there is only "one best way" to perform a job. It was based on the fact that money is a motivator and left out the idea of job satisfaction. The last factor that helped I/O psychology become prominent was the human relations movement. This particular movement wanted to keep people happy through motivation along with job satisfaction. It also led to the Hawthorne Studies, which was the true start of I/O psychology.

The Hawthorne Studies were conducted from about 1927-1932 by Elton Mayo at the Western Electric Company. Some results that came out of this study were that a workplace must be seen as a social system not just a productive system, that including workers in decision making process can reduce resistance to change, and that individual work behavior is determined by a complex set of factors.

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Some Important Terms and Definitions in I/O Psychology

Validity

The accuracy of a measurement instrument. This helps tell if you are predicting what you want to predict. Unfortunately there can be many threats to your accuracy of measurement.
Groups

Groups are extremely important in today's workplace. In order to be defined as a group, the members need to be trying to achieve the same goal.
Job Analysis

A job analysis is useful for describing what someone does at a particular job. It also helps in placing people in similar salaries, types of tests and performance appraisals.
Performance Appraisals

Performance appraisals focus on evaluation of job incumbents to assess employees' strengths and weaknesses and to identify appropriate pay raises.
Affirmative Action

Affirmative action efforts are meant to ensure that members of all demographic groups receive equal employment opportunities in order to avoid discrimination in the workplace.

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Some Interesting Subfields Within I/O Psychology

The following table describes five important subfields within I/O psychology. With each subtopic you can learn a little more about the area along with being able to visit some different web pages about these topics.

Performance Appraisals
Performance appraisal is one subfield that helps in assessing worker performance. It can provide information that is valid for pay increases, promotions ,and various other opportunities.
Organizational Development
This subfield addresses change in the workplace and how a company goes about the transition process to new ways of managing things.
Assessment Centers
This section focuses in on the idea of evaluating job applicants in a structured way in order to find the best fit for hiring and/or promotion.
Leadership
This section talks about what makes a leader and what the different styles of leadership are.
Training and Development
In this linked page, you can learn about different types of training and how companies go about providing training in the workplace.

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A Typical Day Practicing I/O Psychology

There are various jobs that one can choose to focus in on. One particular job is that of providing training in the workplace. This job has been growing over the years since companies have the need to provide training about various topics. A typical day in which someone provides training can be very complicated. One might start out with brainstorming with a group of managers about a certain topic that they have been asked to teach, perhaps sexual harassment in the workplace. Or one might start the day by siting in on a training session so that they can teach other people what you have learned. Other parts of your day could include teaching seminars or training courses about a particular topic or putting together packets that talk about different areas that one might need training in.

One's day would also be packed with teaching and talking to people. This shows that communication is one main aspect of being an I/O psychologist. One has to be extremely organized and prepared to answer almost any type of question. Other aspects of ones day could involve studying a certain job to see what type of training would make a job run more smoothly or looking through past research to help find the best training strategies on topics that need to be taught. Your day can be very long, but in the end it is always interesting to see the results of your training on other people.

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Pros and Cons of a Career in I/O Psychology

There are both potentially rewarding and frustrating aspects to working in I/O psychology that need to be carefully considered before pursuing a career in this field. It is important to understand that these pros and cons to I/O psychology are not meant to scare you away from this particular field but to help you better your understanding of this field.

Some Potential Attractions of Careers in I/O Psychology
Many Opportunities

There are many career paths possible in I/O psychology. One can work for a human resource department, work in management or work for one main company while being staffed out to smaller companies.
Challenges

I/O psychology also presents constant challenges because it is a relatively new field and people are still trying to learn more about people in the workplace.
In Demand

Many companies are realizing that they need to increase job satisfaction and in order to do so they need I/O psychologists to help them out.
Set Own Hours

If you choose to work on your own and provide help to various companies, you can have somewhat flexible hours that may fit in better with your daily routine.
Can be Independent or Work for a Company

Often, you can choose to work by yourself by creating your own consulting firm or you can work with a large company and have a set salary and workday.

Some Potential Drawbacks of Careers in I/O Psychology
Education

Often many of the jobs in I/O psychology require one to have a masters or a doctorate in I/O psychology.
Risk of Burnout

Burnout may result unless people try different subfields in I/O psychology and/or try to regularly learn new things .
Clients

If you are not a people person and do not like dealing with people, I/O psychology may not be for you. When working in I/O psychology, there often is an intense relationship with a client.
Dependence on You

Another drawback is the fact that people depend on you to help their company. Often there is nothing you can do to help the company if the people in the company are not willing to change.
Changing Settings

If you consult on your own, you are constantly working in new settings and/or situations in order to help client companies.

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Education and Training for Careers in I/O Psychology

THERE ARE VARIOUS KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS and ABILITIES that one needs in order to pursue a career in I/O psychology. One skill that is very important is communication. Another skill/ability that one needs to have is the idea of organization. It does not matter if you are teaching a large class of students or if you are interviewing one person you have to be organized in the way that you do your work and plan your day. If one is interested in consulting work, they would have to have a great deal of knowledge and background in I/O psychology. They would have to be able to look at a corporation and help them decide which training style will best fit their company. This knowledge is very beneficial and if one is willing to go through all the schooling it will definitely pay off.

WITH A BACHELOR'S DEGREE IN PSYCHOLOGY, one can have numerous job opportunities. If I/O is what one is interested in, human resource (HR) jobs could be appealing. These particular jobs involve lots of interaction with people. For most companies, it is the HR department that helps with the hiring of new employees, training of employees and benefits. These particular jobs usually start from about $25,000 to about $28,000 (Salary Data). This pay range also depends on the type of background skills one might have. For instance, if you have been certified in healthcare/insurance information, you would be considered to be an HR specialist in insurance and might have a higher pay range. If you do not focus in on any particular topic you would be considered an HR generalist and would be participating in small aspects of various different jobs, ie. interviewing, training, benefits and recruiting. With a bachelor's degree, there is room for promotion but if you wanted to move on to management, you would most likely have to continue your education to the masters level.

WITH A MASTER'S DEGREE IN I/O PSYCHOLOGY, one has many more choices when it comes to job opportunities.With this degree one could start off their career working as an HR specialist. They could also focus their career on working for a consulting firm, teaching at a university or devoting their life to research in I/O psychology. The pay ranges for this degree start at about $30,000 and work their way up to about $40,000. If one chooses to move up to management, the salary could reach about $50,000 to $80,000 (Salary Data). Some typical job titles with a master's degree are Senior Research Consultant, HR Consulting Assistant or Employee Relations Manager.

Some Terminal Master's Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in I/O Psychology
I/O Psychology at
West Chester University

This program is designed for students with interests in Human Resources, business and industry. It also prepares students for doctoral programs in I/O.
I/O Psychology at
University of North Texas

This program offers concentrations in Personnel Psychology, Consulting, and Employee Counseling.
I/O Psychology at
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

This program gives both an industry and doctoral program background in a work related research teaching style along with applying problem solving skills.
I/O Psychology at Rensselaer Polytechnical

This program focuses on traditional personnel psychology along with traditional organizational psychology. It also allows you to individualize your studies.

WITH A DOCTORAL DEGREE IN I/O PSYCHOLOGY, the amount of education and experience needed increases along with the pay. In order to pursue a doctoral degree in I/O psychology, one must first have both a BA/BS and a master's degree in a related field. Often one can participate in a doctoral program while receiving their master's at the same time. There are many different doctoral programs but most of them require you to spend a year working on an internship along with writing a dissertation. Some typical job titles that people with doctoral degrees in I/O psychology have are research/senior scientist, organizational development leader and a professor working on a tenure track position. With these type of positions one would be performing job and task analysis assessments, managing company's consulting practice or teaching college students. A typical salary can start at about $40,000 (Salary Data).

Some Doctoral Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in I/O Psychology
I/O Psychology at the University of Tulsa

This program also allows choices of specialization (e.g., business, law).
I/O Psychology at
University of Connecticut

This program h applies personnel and/or human factors psychology to problems of business, government and industry.
Philosophy and I/O Psychology at
Old Dominion University

The program combines philosophy and I/O psychology in approaching personnel issues, training, organizational psychology, and human factors.

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Employment Resources for I/O Psychology

There are many different resources one can use to find out more about I/O psychology. One can look on the internet for more information, contact a faculty member that has specialized in this field or contact a consulting firm that deals with this type of work. Often these sources can have a big impact on helping you decide if this field is right for you and what type of jobs exist in the field.

Some Resources for Exploring Careers and Career Prospects in I/O Psychology
Human Resources

This site is designed only to help people find positions in Human Resources.
Society for Human Resource Management

This site provides access to various job levels in Human Resources, many of which are management level positions.
Careers in Psychology

At this site, one can find a list of all types of jobs offered to psychology majors.
Jobs for Human Resources

This site provides a targeted search for careers in human resources.

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Learning More About I/O Psychology

This section provides information to help you learn more about I/O psychology. The web sites listed below help you to learn more about aspects of research that have been previously published along with past history and research that has been done.

Some General Resources for Learning More about I/O Psychology
Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (SIOP)

SIOP provides information about past and recent research that has been published about I/O psychology. It also has job postings.
American Psychological Association (APA)

This web site provides archival descriptions about I/O psychology.
I/O Psychology

This link provides a list of various web sites one can visit to find out more about I/O psychology and sub-areas of human resource management, organizational psychology and statistics.

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Outlook

With training and team building becoming a large part of the business world, I/O psychology is also becoming a large part of the business world. Many companies are looking to hire full time I/O psychologists or consulting firms to help their company keep up with new technology. With this demand increasing, so are the number of jobs in this field. According to the Business of Labor Statistics, I/O psychology is likely to remain competitive through 2008. They say that employment demand is high in consulting firms and personnel supply and that in the future it is likely that small business will be looking for human resource specialists. The one thing that may hold back the increase in I/O jobs is technology. However, the I/O field nevertheless looks productive for the next eight years or more.

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Summary

Industrial Organizational psychology is a rapidly growing field. There are many new opportunities in this field which help make it appealing to many. If one chooses to become involved in this particular career, they will have a vast array of opportunities to explore. Although a higher education seems mandatory in this field ,it is not necessary. One can enjoy a job in the work force without having a complete background in I/O psychology. In fact there seem to be numerous positions available in human resources and other related fields that work closely with the ideas that I/O psychologists work with.

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Acknowledgments

This page was created by Lauren P. Morris as a project for a Senior Seminar in Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University in Spring 2000. The author is particularly grateful for the assistance of Dr. Catherine Renner, Dr. Stefani Yorges, and Mr. Lee Sprague.


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Sports Psychology
Introduction

SPORT PSYCHOLOGY is (a) the study of the psychological and mental factors that influence and are influenced by participation and performance in sport, exercise, and physical activity, and (b) the application of the knowledge gained through this study to everyday settings.

Sport psychology professionals are interested in how participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity may enhance personal development and well-being throughout the life span. Sport psychologists are also involved in assisting coaches in working with athletes as well as helping improve athletes' motivation.

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A Brief History

It was not until 1920 that the world's first sport psychology laboratory was founded by Carl Diem at the Deutsche Sporthochschule in Berlin Germany. Five years later, in 1925, A.Z. Puni opened a sport psychology laboratory at the Institute of Physical Culture in Leningrad. That same year, Cloman Griffith of the University of Illinois established the first sport psychology laboratory in North America. Griffith had begun his research into psychological factors that affect sport performance in 1918, and in 1923 he offered the first course in sport psychology. Griffith was interested in the effects on athletic performance of factors such as reaction time, mental awareness, muscular tension and relaxation, and personality. He then published two books, The Psychology of Coaching (1926) -- the first book in sport psychology -- and The Psychology of Athletes (1928) . Because of the financial constraints imposed through the Great Depression, Griffith's laboratory closed in 1932.

In North America, little or no research in sport psychology took place between the closing of Griffith's laboratory and the 1960's. Then rather quickly, physical education departments in many institutions began to offer courses in sport psychology, and graduate programs began to appear.

Important as these developments were, the most significant stimulus to the growth of sport psychology was the formation of academic societies and scholarly journals devoted to professionals in this emerging in this field. In 1965, the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) was formed by scientists from across Europe; its first international congress was held that same year in Rome. Several scientists from North America who attended this first ISSP meeting were asked to consider hosting the next international congress. In 1966, a group of sport psychologists met in Chicago to discuss the formation of a society for sport psychology. They became became known as the North American Society of Sport Psychology and Physical Activity (NASPSPA).

The first scholarly journal devoted to sport psychology, the International Journal of Sport Psychology, was established in 1970, followed in 1979 by the Journal of Sport Psychology.

Increasing interest in conducting sport psychology research in settings outside the laboratory triggered formation of the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) in 1985 and focused more directly on applied psychology in both the health field and sport contexts.

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Some Important Terms in Sport Psychology
Cohesion

Whenever a team has done well and they are asked, What factors contributed to their success, someone always says, "We got along well all season." In team sports, team cohesion is a large part of success. Team members need to have mutual respect for each other and accept the faults of teammates.
Imagery

Using Imagery is really quite simple: you picture yourself performing a sport in your mind. Most importantly however, is that you picture yourself performing correctly and with excellence.
Confidence

Sport psychologists help athletes with self-confidence. To perform beyond what they have accomplished before, athletes need to believe that they are capable of going further.
Motivation

Intrinsic motivation comes from inside the athlete or person. They do something because it makes them feel good, or they develop a sense of pride after accomplishing a goal. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside, money, and awards such as trophies or medals are extrinsic. Both types of motivation are important to consider.
Attentional Focus

Lack of attentional focus is probably the most common problem of novice athletes. Being able to block out the crowd, the other team, or our own personal lives can be very challenging at times.

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Some Interesting Subfields

Several career paths exist for an individual interested in the field of sport psychology. Typically, those entering the field enter one of several tracks of preparation.

Some Interesting Subfields Within Sport Psychology


Track I

Teaching/research in sport sciences and working with athletes on performance enhancement.


Track II

Teaching/Research in psychology and also working with athletes.


Track III

Providing clinical/counseling services to various populations, Including Athletes.
Track IV
Health promotion and working with athletes, but not necessarily directly in sport psychology.
Sport Psychology and Coaching of Youths
Youth sport organizations may employ a sport psychology professional to educate coaches about how to increase the satisfaction and enjoyment of participants and about coaches' roles in promoting development of self-esteem.

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A Typical Day Practicing Sport Psychology

The activities of a particular sport psychology professional will vary based on the practitioner's specific interests and training. Some may focus primarily on conducting research and on educating others about sport psychology. Typically, these individuals teach at colleges and universities and, in some cases, also work with athletes, coaches, or athletic administrators. They provide education as well as develop and implement programs designed to maximize the overall well-being of sport, exercise, and physical activity participants.

Other professionals may focus primarily applying sport psychology knowledge. These individuals are typically more interested in the enhancement of sport, exercise, and physical activity performance or enjoyment. They may consult with a broader range of clients and may serve in an educational or counseling role.

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Pros and Cons of a Career in Sport Psychology

There are both potentially rewarding and frustrating aspects to working in sport psychology that need to be considered before pursuing a career in this field. Devotion and dedication are a must, if you are courageous enough to pursue a career in this profession and achieve success, the rewards can be extremely gratifying. .

Some Potential Attractions of Careers in Sport Psychology
Helping Others

The profession offers the opportunity to assist others in a variety of ways.
Team Environment

The sense of belonging to a team can be very rewarding for many people.
Seeing Hard Work Pay Off

Correcting particular problems or helping individual accomplish goals can be very satisfying.
Mental/Physical Interaction

Nurturing the unique interaction between the physical and psychological processes can facilitate balance in one's life.
Diversity

the profession offers a unique opportunity to explore many fields besides psychology.

Some Potential Drawbacks of Careers in Sport Psychology
Intense Schooling

Rigorous academic demands at the graduate and doctorate levels can be exhausting.
Demanding work hours

Frequent long hours may be required, depending on the client.
Burnout

Burnout is very common in this field due to the long hours and stressful situations encountered.
Narrow Career Opportunities

There is not very much room for career diversity, especially for non-sports oriented individuals.
Low Paying Jobs

Salaries tend not to be competitive with other areas of applied psychology.

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Education and Training for a Career in Sport Psychology

NEEDED SKILLS, ABILITIES, and KNOWLEDGE: Surveys and interviews with athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists suggest that an effective sport psychologist (1) possesses a knowledge of psychology and of sport along with the ability to apply psychology to sport, (2) has a likable personality, (3) shows a concern and care for athletes and coaches, (4) has the ability to establish good working relationships with athletes and coaches, (5) models team-based behaviors, and (6) expresses a willingness to learn from athletes and coaches.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A BACHELOR'S DEGREE: The best option for someone at this level is to do some sort of internship and becoming involved with a sports team. If paying positions are available, they tend to be in the $18-22K starting range (1999 figures).

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A MASTER'S DEGREE: Many jobs are available for those with masters degrees in this subfield. Nonetheless, people who want to utilize a broad range of skills need a doctoral degree for optimum success. To work independently, one needs also need to be licensed by the state in they work. Typical 1999 pay is the $28-32K starting range.

Some Terminal Master's Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Sport Psychology
School of Sport Psychology at Capella University

This institution sets a high standard on excellence, and is demonstrated through their very high graduate success rate.
Kinesiology Graduate Program at University of Wisconsin-Madison

Graduate study in this program is based upon a psychobiological perspective.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A DOCTORAL DEGREE: Most professional opportunities in sport psychology require doctoral degrees from accredited colleges and universities. In addition, students in counseling or clinical psychology doctoral programs usually complete post-graduate internships (normally not in sport psychology) as part of their education. Even if students with a masters degree complete sport psychology internships, these graduates compete at a distinct disadvantage for the limited number of full-time positions available in sport psychology.

Some Doctoral Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Sport Psychology
Sport, Health, Leisure and Physical Studies at University of Iowa

This is an excellent program involving many different aspects of sport psychology.

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Employment Resources for Sport Psychology

The following list of resources should be helpful to those interested in pursuing an career in this sport psychology.

Some Resources for Exploring Careers and Career Prospects in Sport Psychology
Planning Your Career

Provides student information on numerous specialized areas of psychology.
Career Information

Links to the APA Monitor for job openings.





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Learning More About Sport Psychology

To become more involved in sport psychology or learn more about the field, it is useful to consider joining professional organizations and attending their conferences, such as

* APA Division 47,
* The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP),
* The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA), and
* The International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP).

Some General Resources for Learning More about Sport Psychology
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)

AAASP exists to promote theory development, research, and practice in applied sport and exercise psychology.
American Psychological Association Division 47

Regulates and ensures that all ethical codes are met by those involved in the field of sport psychology.

North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)

NASPSPA is the oldest organization devoted to sport and exercise psychology in North America. It is comprised of three subareas devoted to motor development, motor learning and control, and social psychology and physical activity.

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Outlook

Some opportunities in the sport psychology are available in the private sector for the people with masters' degrees. However not only are these opportunities limited, but there is stiff completion from individuals holding doctorates degrees. Many people who want to work as a sport psychologist aim tom work for a sports team. The few individuals asked to do so almost always have doctorates or postdoctoratal training and are employed at the university level, which also involves teaching and conducting research. Opportunities to consult on a full-time bases for sports teams are rare. Indeed, full-time positions in sport psychology at any level-university or private sector are limited.

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Summary

Sport psychology can be considered a subdiscipline of Psychology as well as Sport and Exercise Science. It is presumed to be an applied field whereby the principles of psychology are transferred to settings including exercise programs and organized sport. As an academic discipline, sport and exercise psychology is the scientific study of people and their behavior in sport and exercise contexts and involves such topics as personality, motivation, attributions, arousal, leadership, and goal-setting. In essence, the field is concerned with the psychological determinants of behavior in movement situations as well as the psychological effects of sport engagement and physical activity.

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Acknowledgments

This page was created by Brian Haney as a project for a Senior Seminar in Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University in Spring 2000.


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Careers in Educational Psychology
Introduction

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY focuses on the study of learning outcomes, student attributes, and instructional processes directly related to the classroom and the school, such as amount of instructional time or individual differences in school learning. An educational psychologist helps gather information for teachers and parents when students have academic or behavioral problems. They assist by evaluating students' thinking abilities and assessing individual strengths and weaknesses. Together, the parents, teachers, and educational psychologist formulate plans to help students learn more effectively. Educational psychologists work mostly in elementary and secondary school classrooms. They also may work in other settings such as colleges, consulting organizations, corporations, industry, the military, and religious institutions.

Other career tracks within educational psychology include being a school psychologist or a school counselor. A school psychologist works with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students' learning and behavior problems. They evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in school setting. School counselors help people to accommodate to change or to make changes in their lifestyle. They use techniques such as interviewing and testing to advise people how to deal with problems of everyday living. They work in places like university counseling centers, hospitals, high schools, and individual or group practices.

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A Brief History

Around 400 B.C., Aristotle and Plato considered many of the questions that still concern educational psychologists and teachers: How do students learn? What are the purposes of education? How much does home environment influence learning? Should different students be educated differently? How much can instruction influence moral, physical ,and emotional development?

The debate over the relative influences of heredity and environment still concerns educational psychologists today as it did in earlier times. Rene Descartes believed that knowledge was derived from the ideas with which people were born, rather than experience. Englishman John Locke had a dramatically different position, stating that children begin life as a tabla rasa or blank slate, and all learning results from experience.

In the late 1800's, the formal study of psychology began in the U. S. Not all educators of the day exactly welcomed the idea of psychology being linked to education and teaching. William James, who is considered a central figure in the development of educational psychology, is famous for his lecture series "Talk to Teachers About Psychology." One of his students, G. Stanley Hall, wrote books about children and started the journal Pedagogical Seminary and also developed child study courses for teachers. John Dewey, who was a student of Hall's, is known for his philosophy of education. He is considered to be the father of the progressive education movement in the United States.

E. L. Thorndike wrote the first educational psychology textbook in 1903. He was responsible for shifting the study of educational issues into the laboratory from the classroom. Thorndike developed popular methods for assessing students' skills and teaching. At the same time in France, Alfred Binet and his associate Theopile Simon were developing a test to measure general intelligence. It was brought to the U.S. and revised by Lewis Terman at Stanford University and became the Stanford-Binet test. In Binet's laboratory, in 1920, Jean Piaget did work focused on what kind of errors children made as they completed mental tasks. He came up with a model of cognitive development which stated that children go through a series of stages and develop the cognitive abilities to solve increasingly difficult problems. At the same time in the Unites States, B. F. Skinner concentrated on studying the effects of experience on overt behavior. He believed that behavior was shaped as a function of two sets of factors: stimuli that precede it and stimuli that follow it. His approach has been applied extensively to education.

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Important Terms and Definitions

Some Important Terms in Educational Psychology
Aptitude

A combination of characteristics, whether native or acquired, that are indicative of an individual's ability to learn or to develop proficiency in some particular area if appropriate education or training is provided.
Cooperative Learning

Working in small groups to complete goals and produce products interdependently.Two forms of it are jigsaw and scripted cooperation.
Educational Evaluations

Focuses only on the intellectual functioning of individuals, with limited forays into areas that may impact the educational requirements of the person.
Curriculum

A course of study, especially the whole body of courses offered in a school or university or in one of its departments.
IQ

A number denoting the intelligence of a person. It is obtained by dividing mental age by chronological age.

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Some Interesting Subfields

If one were interested in pursuing an educational psychology career in a school setting, below would be some informative areas to look into further:

Some Interesting Subfields Within Educational Psychology
Counseling
Look here if you may possibly be interested in a career as a counselor. It has links to some graduate programs and places to get more information about school counseling.
Approaches to Learning
Discusses the behavioral, cognitive and constructivist approaches to learning. Tells what each approach has contributed to the field of education.
Learning Styles
Tells you about seven perceptual learning styles and the characteristics a person may possess for each category. Also has some interesting links about other learning styles and how a teacher can effectively use them.
Effective Teachers
Has interesting information pertaining to how teachers' attitudes can affect the way they teach and treat their students.

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A Typical Day Practicing Educational Psychology

An educational psychologist's day can surely never get boring or repetitive. Working in a school setting, the days usually begin around 7:30 a.m. The work day consists of meetings with faculty, students, administrators, and parents. One minute they could be talking to a student, giving them advice about problems they may be having with classes. Then they could be discussing curriculum changes with faculty and administrators in order to tailor the curriculum to students' needs. Their day typically should end at the end of the school day, but if they were interrupted frequently throughout the day, they may have to stay to do paperwork or go to more meetings. Some educational psychologists may operate private practices in the evenings.

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Pros and Cons of a Career in Educational Psychology

There are both potentially rewarding and frustrating aspects to work in Educational Psychology that need to be carefully considered before pursuing a career in this field:

Some Potential Attractions of Careers in Educational Psychology
Usually Daytime Hours

If you like to have your evenings free for personal time or family, usually working in a school would require daytime hours.
Make Own Hours

If you have your own practice or work independently, you can have flexibility with what hours you choose to worky.
Summers Off

Working in a school setting usually allows for summers off..
Helping Others

It is rewarding to see how you may help someone change and make his/her life better.
Team Environment

Working together with teachers, parents, and students in order to make plans that can be beneficial to all parties concerned.

Some Potential Drawbacks of Careers in Educational Psychology
High Stress Levels

It can be frustrating to help others who may not want to be helped. Many educational psycholgists encounter substantial conflict with teachers, parents, or administrators.
Tight Schedules

One may have to deal with a large number of tasks and meetings that need to be attended to in any one day.
Intense Schooling

In order to make decent money, you may need a doctorate degree, but you can still be a school psychologist at the master's level.
Evening Hours

Having your own practice, you may have to have evening hours to accommodate patients or if you have a practice other than a day job.
Daily Routine Interruptions

Emergencies may come up throughout a day that an educational psychologist needs to attend to immediately.

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Education and Training for Careers in Educational Psychology

NEEDED SKILLS, ABILITIES, and KNOWLEDGE: Educational psychologists require skills in evaluating needs, analyzing behavior in children, counseling, research, report writing, and written and oral communication skills. They also need to have a good decision-making ability and highly developed people skills. Additionally, they need to have knowledge about child development, behavioral change, individual education programming, counseling ,and assessment techniques. Some personal qualities they should possess include patience, concern for others, and an ability to inspire confidence in clients. They should also be able to work well under pressure and keep information private. It is also important that they are observant, emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal with effectively with others.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A BACHELOR'S DEGREE: Bachelor's degree holders can expect very few opportunities directly related to psychology, according to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (Bureau of Labor Statistics). You may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet state certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers. In an entry-level position with the federal government, starting salaries as a psychologist with a bachelor's degree was about $19,500 a year (1999 data); with superior academic records you could start ar around $24,200 a year.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A MASTER'S DEGREE: People with master's degrees can administer tests as psychological assistants. Under the supervision of a doctoral level psychologist, they can administer psychological evaluations, counsel patients, or perform administrative duties. They may also teach in high schools or two year colleges or work as a school psychologist or counselor. School psychologist's usually need a one year internship after receiving their master's degree. Vocational and guidance counselors usually need two years of graduate work in counseling and one year counseling experience. The median salary of a school psychologist is $60,000 a year (1999 data). In counseling psychology the median is $38,000 a year.

Some Terminal Master's Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Educational Psychology
Graduate School of Education at University of California-LA

Includes the Department of Education and the Department of Information Studies, which together embody the school's commitment to understand and improve educational practice, information policy, and information systems in a diverse society.
Department of Psychology at Eastern College

Eastern offers a Master's in Science in School Psychology and a Master in Arts in Educational Counseling with a choice of concentrations in Elementary Counseling and Secondary Counseling.
Department of Educational Psychology at Rutgers University

The focus of the this program is upon expanding knowledge in education and psychology and forging a link between these areas.
Psychology Department at Haverford College

This program spans the School of Education and the Psychology Departments at Haverford College and Bryn Mawr College.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A DOCTORAL DEGREE: A doctoral degree is required to be a licensed counseling psychologist and usually requires five to seven years of graduate study. Psychologist swith a Ph.D. qualify for a wide range of teaching and counseling positions in universities, elementary ,and secondary schools, private industry, and government. The median 1999 salary for a psychologist with a doctoral degree in counseling psychology is $55,000 a year and $59,000 a year in school psychology.

Some Doctoral Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Educational Psychology
School of Education and Department of Psychology at University of Michigan

This interdisciplinary doctoral training program encourages students to combine research and practice on significant issues in education and in psychology. Graduates are trained for teaching and research careers in academic and non-academic positions.
School of Education at New York University

NYU offers a doctoral program in several areas of applied psychology, including counseling and guidance, counseling psychology, educational psychology and school psychology.
College of Education at the University of Maryland

This program stresses the application of psychological knowledge from a variety of theoretical orientations to address educational and mental health issues of students and schools.

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Employment Resources for Educational Psychology

The Internet is the most accessible and informative way to find jobs in educational psychology. Some positions may also be listed in your local newspaper such as The Philadelphia Inquirer.

Some Resources for Exploring Careers and Career Prospects in Educational Psychology
Psyc Careers

Has lots of useful information and links pertaining to graduate schools and careers in psychology.
Academic Position Network

Allows one to do a job search using specific titles, browse the APN job postings, and apply for positions online.
Online Psychology Career Center

Has job listings for all areas of psychology, provides career tips, and has information regarding student aid and internships.
Chronicle of Higher Education

Gives advice for job seekers, has almost 1,000 job listings, and has news about the current job markets.

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Learning More About Educational Psychology

Again, the Internet would be the most helpful and easily accessible way to learn more about the field of educational psychology. Talking to someone in the field or holding a position that you would be interested in would also be an informative way to learn more.

Some General Resources for Learning More about Educational Psychology
Encyclopedia of Psychology

Has abundant nformation regarding getting a job in psychology, research careers, grad schools, doctorate programs, accreditation, and career outlooks
Psychology Online Resource Central

Has links for just about every aspect of psychology, grad schools, career centers, research areas, and specialization areas. Good for students, professionals, and teachers.
Psych Web

Contains resources on books in psychology, careers in psychology, psychology departments on the web, psychology journals, and tips for psychology majors.

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Outlook

People with doctorates in applied areas such as school, counseling and educational psychology should have particularly good prospects compared to other specializations in psychology. Graduates of master's degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase student counseling and mental health services. Bachelor's degree holders can expect very few opportunities directly related to psychology.

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Summary

The field of educational psychology can offer a wide variety of career paths. If you are someone who especially likes to work with others, specifically by giving guidance to adolescents and young adults, this could be a rewarding career. It could take some time to get to the position that you want because almost all jobs will require a master's or doctorate degree. Educational psychology will probably tend to be an expanding field, with the need for more staff at overcrowded schools and the need to deal with the extreme problems that some children faced today.

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Acknowledgments

This web page was created by Colleen McLenaghan as a project for Senior Seminar in Psychology class taught by Dr. Arvid Bloom at West Chester University in Spring 2000. I am grateful for the assistance of Janette Kuhlberg and Chris Pardini.


http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Educational/Career04.htm


Careers in Consumer Psychology
Introduction

CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY is the study of human responses to product and service related information and experiences. Many responses are important, including beliefs and judgments, emotions, purchase decisions, and consumption practices. A broad range of product and service related information is also important, such as advertisements, package labels, coupons, consumer magazines, and word-of-mouth communications from friends and relatives. The goals of consumer psychologists are to describe, predict, influence, and/or explain consumer responses.

Consumer psychologists are educators, researchers, and administrators. They get direct feedback from their work and they see how it changes things. It is not easy to understand why some people buy and others do not. Nor is it a simple matter to discover the trends and predict where things are going in the next few years. The majority of business executives and managers are well educated and trained in their field, but few are also all that familiar with the behavioral sciences. This is where consumer psychologists step in. The consumer psychologist's job is not easy. Once a Coke was a Coke. Today's consumers have more than brand preferences. Some want regular cola, some decaffeinated, some sugar-free, and some both decaffeinated and sugar-free. And there is still more: New formula and Classic; cherry-flavored, too.

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A Brief History

John B. Watson was the first prominent psychologist to apply psychology to advertising. He believed that psychology could not be recognized as a science until its practical usefulness was demonstrated in many fields. He said, "If psychology would follow the plan I suggest, the educator, the physician, the jurist, and the businessman could utilize our data in a practical way." He interestingly designed ads for Johnson & Johnson's baby powder. With doing so, he played on new mothers' anxieties and feelings of incompetence about properly caring for their children. He recognized and exploited not only the power of emotional appeals in advertising, but also the impact of experts who recommended products, and the presentation of products as new or improved.

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Some Important Terms in Consumer Psychology
Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior deals with how products are evaluated and chosen by consumers; what information os paid attention to, and what was ignored.
Personality

A normal individual's personality is internally consistent, even though it might not appear that way from the outside. It is also pretty durable; it ordinarily does not change a great deal over the months and years of a person's life.
Sales

You spend money when someone "sells" you something directly or indirectly. Good sellers know that most purchases are based upon emotion, not logic.
Marketing

Marketing requires making choices that will please others. Most people find it difficult to decide what is best for themselves.
Choice

Consumer choice would be simple if the outcomes were perfectly predictable. In fact, they almost never are. The purchase of just about any kind of consumer product or service involves some risk for the buyer.

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Some Interesting Subfields

There are several important and interesting subfields in Consumer Psychology. Each subfield adds to the psychology of consumer behavior in its own way.

Some Interesting Subfields Within Consumer Psychology
Advertising
Advertising is very widespread. It splashes across newspaper and magazine pages, blurts out from radio broadcasts, comes with the daily meal, interrupts television programing and invades the landscape on signs and billboards.
Perception
Consumers often "taste" with their eyes and ears. They learn far more from words and images than from sensations. Their perceptual acuity is not nearly as sensitive as marketers usually think it is.
Life Stages
Time works its way on all of us. Much of what we are is the result of the maturation process. Time and experience invariably etch their marks on our physical and our psychological selves and consumer preferences.
Motivation
We often do not really know exactly why we do the things we do. When people are asked why they made a particular purchase, the responses they give are often not especially accurate or useful.


Psychology of Price

What is something really worth? This deceptively simple question is surprisingly difficult to answer. In Medieval times, the idea was that something cost what it was worth, no more and no less. Today the somewhat cynical answer is "whatever the market will bear."

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A Typical Day Practicing Consumer Psychology

Consumer Psychologists combine creativity with sound business sense to market a product based on financial, sociological, and psychological research. To ensure this complicated process works smoothly, they spend a lot of time in the office (a six-day week is not unusual). The majority of time is spent brainstorming, creative blockbusting, and sifting through demographic research; a minority of time is spent meeting with clients. The need to be flexible cannot be emphasized enough. One can expect periods when they will have little, if any, free time. At other times, the workload is light and mundane.

Many people say that their favorite part of consumer psychology is that "you get recognized when you have a good idea." They also mentioned that failure is always recognized. It takes a very disciplined person to handle both the creative and the details-oriented side. The ability to work on a team is one of the most important skills a successful consumer psychologist can have.

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Pros and Cons of a Career in Consumer Psychology

There are both potentially rewarding and frustrating aspects to working in Consumer Psychology that need to be carefully considered before pursuing a career in this field. In order to succeed in the field, one needs to view the drawbacks as being potential challenges rather than downfalls.

Some Potential Attractions of Careers in Consumer Psychology
Challenge of Working With Others

Regular work in a rewarding team environment is not unusual. You get to meet, communicate with, and work with many different individuals.
Human Behavior

You gain knowledge and insight through analysis of human choice patterns.
Creativity

There is ample opportunity for creativity. There are many opportunities to be creative and make your opinion count. You can be creative with how you go about different studies.
Seeing Hard Work Pay Off

You are oftenable to see all of your hard work pay off by seeing predictions work out. It is satisfying to see that your findings can help companies make better products for you.

Some Potential Drawbacks of Careers in Consumer Psychology
High Risk of Burnout

There is a lot of overtime expected with a six day work week or a possible 50 hours a week when there are product development deadlines..
Slow Start

As you begin your career in consumer psychology, it can be slow at first. You can spend most of your time entering computer data.
Lack of Cooperation

You may experience hard times with finding cooperative candidates to interview and to use for supplying good consumer data.
Discouragement

There may be many instances when things do not go as planned and research projects do not lead to meaningful conclusions.
Decision Overload

As a Consumer Psychologist, you will have to make many decisions regarding research, tests, consumers, and data interpretation. This may overload some individuals.

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Education and Training for Careers in Consumer Psychology

SKILLS, ABILITIES AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED to be successful in Consumer Psychology include the ability to evaluate problems and make appropriate decisions, apply a thorough understanding of human development and behavior, interpret psychological research, understanding others, promote good relationships, observe and analyze data, communicate well, and use computers while assisting in lab research.

BY OBTAINING ONLY A BACHELOR'S DEGREE in Consumer Psychology, there are many different career paths you can choose from. Advertising is a particularly popular field. Other paths include public affairs, education, business, sales, and working for service industries. Basically, a bachelor's degree prepares you for both life and work. The annual salary range for a bachelor's degree (1999 data) is roughly $21,000 to $26,000.

BY FURTHERING YOUR EDUCATION AND PURSUING A MASTER'S DEGREE involving Consumer Studies, you can expect to make roughly about $30,000 to $40,000 (1999 data), depending on the exact field you are working in. Many psychologists with terminal master's degrees often work under the direction of a doctoral psychologist. Also, there are related jobs in organizational development, advertising, survey research and data analysis, to name a few.

Some Terminal Master's Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Consumer Psychology
Family and Consumer Economics at Purdue University

Graduate study and research in family and consumer economics concentrates on the factors influencing the decisions and well-being of families and consumers.
Family and Consumer Behavior at the University of Nebraska

This master's program focuses on household efforts to improve economic well-being through effective use of resources, and on the economic and social systems that enhance or constrain these efforts.
Family and Consumer Science at Ball State University

To acquire a M.S. degree, 33 credit hours of study are required, 18 of which are dedicated specifically to Family and Consumer Science

IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A DOCTORAL DEGREE in Consumer Studies, you may choose from many different Ph.D. programs, including ones focused on consumer economics, family and consumer studies, consumer behavior, and consumer science. Jobs are similar to the ones previously listed. However, the pay ranges and responsibilities increase. The highest paid and greatest range of jobs are available to doctoral graduates. Doctoral salaries begin at $40,000 (1999 data) and progress significantly upward as more job experience is acquired.

Some Doctoral Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Consumer Psychology
Consumer Behavior at Purdue University

A very sound and well-rounded program in Consumer Behavior.
Consumer Economics at Cornell University

Consumer Economics focuses on the interaction of markets for goods and services, the well-being of individuals and consumers, and on consumption behavior.

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Employment Resources for Consumer Psychology

A person in Consumer Psychology can find a great deal of information about job opportunities on the Internet, particularly by becoming a member of the Society for Consumer Psychology. It is a good idea to talk to many people about career aspirations in this field, possibly including a professor, because word of mouth is an important factor.

Some Resources for Exploring Careers and Career Prospects in Consumer Psychology
APA Monitor

This informative website has interesting articles, news events, and links. You can also earch within the Monitor .
Direct Market News

This is a helpful site that allows you do a job search. It has information regarding marketing and contains a good collection of news articles.
Advertising Age

This site covers advertising and marketing careers. It allows for job searches and provides helpful information about a variety of topics.
PsychNet

This site is great for job searching. It contains job hunting tips, articles, and general psychology links.

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Learning More About Consumer Psychology

Consumer Psychology is a relatively young field. Therefore, it can be difficult to find a lot of information on it. Here are a few informative websites to consider exploring:

Some General Resources for Learning More about Consumer Psychology
Society For Consumer Psychology

This site offers information on Consumer Psychology and how to join the society. It also offers informative journals.
Encyclopedia of Psychology

This interesting site offers a lot of helpful information about Psychology. It contains career opportunities, definitions, etc.

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Outlook

Consumer psychology has an exciting future. Consumer Psychologists are doing many different things today. In the laboratory, a psychologist may be photographing eye movements for a package design company as his/her subjects observe a succession of soft drink containers. At a government bureau, a psychologist may be presenting the results of a study concerning consumer response to an advertising claim. At an automotive company, a psychologist may be assessing consumer response sto various combinations of product features to help engineers determine the optimal combination. At an advertising agency, a psychologist may be presenting study findings that show how well alternative commercials affect attitudes toward a brand of coffee. There are many emerging opportunities for consumer psychologists; the primary challenge is deciding what subarea to concentrate upon.

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Summary

Consumer Psychology is a very exciting field. It offers many excellent opportunities to not only learn a great deal about consumers and why they buy, but also to gain a better understanding of yourself, and how and why you do the things you do. This is a superb field for anyone interested in applying research in ways that lead to tangible and meaningful differences in organizational decisions about the services or products they provide.

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Acknowledgments

This web page was created by Julia Carpenter. Building this page was a Senior Seminar project in a Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University of Pennsylvania in Spring 2000.


http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Consumer/Career05.htm



Careers in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Introduction

CLINICAL AND COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY are two of the largest and most popular fields in psychology. Clinical and counseling psychologists deal with the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological problems. These problems vary considerably as to their degree of severity. Although very similar, clinical and counseling psychologists differ with respect to the disorders of the patients they treat. Typically, clinical psychologists treat more severe disorders, such as phobias, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, counseling psychologists work with patients suffering from everyday stresses, including career planning, academic performance, and marriage and family difficulties.

Clinical and counseling psychologists can be found working in individual practices, schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, and other mental health facilities. The particular method of therapy utilized by each clinical and counseling psychologist is often influenced by the theoretical orientation they adhere to. There are a total of over 200 theoretical orientations, each providing a different explanation behind the causes of psychological disorders and their appropriate treatments. Some orientations are more popular than others; however, most psychologists integrate two or more into their therapy. Furthermore, some theoretical orientations are better at explaining and treating certain disorders more than others. Regardless of their orientation preference, clinical and counseling psychologists are trained to assist a variety of individuals and their emotional difficulties.

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A Brief History

Clinical psychology began in 1896 as a result of a psychologist's work with a student who was chronic bad speller. At this point clinical psychology had not yet been associated with severe disorders and emotional difficulties. The psychologist's name was Lightner Witmer and he discovered that the student had a variety of learning disabilities. Afterwards he established a clinic where children with learning disorders and other difficulties could be assessed and treated. This clinic was also educational in nature because it offered advice to parents and teachers on dealing with their children's conditions.

Other psychologists, such as Sigmund Freud, began developing their own theories on the treatment of the general population and their accompanying psychological disturbances. Freud, also referred to as the father of psychology, introduced the world to the theory he called psychoanalysis. Carl Jung and Alfred Adler soon followed in Freud's footsteps; however, each had his own personal theory. Many other psychologists formulated their own theories throughout the years. Each theory was impacted by the theorist's family background, country and time period in which they lived, and their exposure to prominent people during their professional development. New theories of helping others continue to be developed today.

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Important Terms and Definitions

Some Important Terms in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Assessment

Clinical assessment assists clinicians in choosing the best treatment methods for their clients via techniques such as interviews and testing.
DSM-IV

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) contains common diagnostic classifications of psychological disorders.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapists stress that our thoughts affect our emotions, our ability to relate to others, and our self-confidence. They believe that irrational and self-defeating thinking bring about psychological problems.
Feminist Therapy

This therapy grew out of the need for women to cope with the demands of the family, discrimination, and working outside the home. It encourages clients to develop their own strengths and to focus on personal empowerment.
Psychosocial Rehabilitation

Psychosocial rehabilitation may be used for people with severe mood disorders and schizophrenia. It helps them to cope with their disorder while living in a community setting.

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Some Interesting Subfields

Within clinical and counseling psychology there are a variety of subfields. Often, psychologists choose a subfield they find particularly interesting and specialize in it. A subfield could be a particular theoretical orientation which guides the psychologist's therapeutic methods or it could be a particular disorder the psychologist is skilled at treating.

Some Interesting Subfields Within Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Research
Psychologists are continuously doing research in order to test the effectiveness of therapies, drug treatments, and many other psychological questions.
Counseling
Counseling involves working with a variety of individuals and their everyday problems in individual, family, or group settings.
Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is used for individuals with severe psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia and severe depression. Treatment strategies often include medication, and sometimes hospitalization.
Psychiatry
Psychiatry is the field of medicine that specializes in prescribing medications for psychological disorders. This requires a medical degree and specialized training in the effects of certain medications.
Child and Adolescent Psychology
Children and adolescents sometimes experience difficulties unique to their age group. Psychologists in this area give special attention to these issues and concerns.

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A Typical Day Practicing Clinical and Counseling Psychology

A typical day as a clinical or counseling psychologist is difficult to describe because the work is so varied. For example, a psychologist in private practice may have some extra responsibilities than one working in a hospital or clinic setting. Regardless, each clinical and counseling psychologist encounters many of the same things throughout a typical day.

The beginning of the day starts with the psychologist getting the files ready of the clients being seen that day. Typically a psychologist will see no more than five clients per day. Psychologists see a variety of clients ranging from children to adults and couples to families. Each client brings along their own personal problems and individual needs. All this must be taken into account when deciding which therapy is best for each specific client.

Children and adolescents are the most difficult population to work with, typically because it may be difficult to gain the parents' cooperation with therapy. Disorders such as depression and anxiety are on the average relatively easy to treat. More difficult to treat are obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, depending on the severity of each. Schizophrenia is by far the hardest disorder to treat. If caught in its early stages, it can be maintained; however, people suffering from schizophrenia will never lead a normal life.

At the end of the day, which sometimes lasts up to 12 hours, psychologists must complete the appropriate paperwork for the clients seen that day. This can be a very tedious task because insurance companies require detailed paperwork on clients.

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Pros and Cons of a Career in Clinical and Counseling Psychology

There are both positive and negative aspects to working in Clinical or Counseling Psychology. It is imperative to carefully think about each of these aspects before considering a career in this field. Here are some key points to consider:

Some Potential Attractions of Careers in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Personal Fulfillment

Working with and helping clients can bring a great deal of personal satisfaction.
Making a Difference

Unique feelings come when you see a client make changes in their lives because you have helped them.
Being Your Own Boss

In private practice, clinical and counseling psychologists are often their own bosses and set their own hours.
Changing Environment

Each client provides different and interesting information about themselves; therefore, the psychologist is rarely bored from doing routine work.
Learning Experience

Clients' diagnoses and therapeutic plans tend to be at least somewhat unique, providing ongoing learning opportunities.

Some Potential Drawbacks of Careers in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Long Hours

Clinical and counseling psychologists often put in up to 12 hours a day between working with clients and the accompanying paperwork.
High Risk of Burnout

Therapy can be very intense and emotionally exhausting, especially if clients do not respond to treatment or who threaten to commit suicide.
Paperwork

There is an enormous amount of paperwork associated with each client. Health insurance companies alone require a lot of paperwork about clients.
Unchanging Clients

Some disorders are easier to treat than others. It can become very aggravating and frustrating to continuously work with a client who do not make life changes.
Intensive

Therapy is very draining because a therapist's full attention must be given to each client. There is little room for daydreaming or allowing your thoughts to wander.

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Education and Training for Careers in Clinical and Counseling Psychology

NEEDED SKILLS, ABILITIES, and KNOWLEDGE: It is important to be able to lead, inspire, and work effectively with people. Job opportunities are highly limited with a bachelor's degree in psychology. In order to work independently in a private practice, licensure is needed. Most states require a psychologist to complete a doctoral degree before becoming licensed; however, some states permit a license with just a master's degree. Without a license, a psychologist is required to work under the supervision of a doctoral-level psychologist. Licensing laws vary from state to state, however, all states require that applicants pass an examination prior to becoming licensed. In addition, some states require that their clinical and counseling psychologists continue their education for license renewal.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A BACHELOR'S DEGREE: Bachelor's degrees are very limiting in the field of psychology. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (Bureau of Labor Statistics) the starting salary for people with a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1997 was approximately $20,600. With this degree it is possible to work in a psychiatric hospital or residential home as a psychiatric assistant or technician. This work allows a large amount of interaction with patients, specifically, observing and recording their moods and behaviors. Unfortunately a psychiatric assistant does not have much influence with regards to the patient's treatment plan. Furthermore, licensure is not possible with a bachelor's degree alone.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A MASTER'S DEGREE: Most master's degrees require at least 2 years of full-time graduate study. Other requirements may include an internship in an applied setting and an original research project called a thesis. In 1997, the average salary with a master's degree was $40,000. Master's level jobs include working in group practices, hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and government offices. In most states master's degrees are not granted licensure. It is possible to practice therapy with a master's degree, but only under the supervision of a licensed psychologist. Master's degrees clearly offer better pay and responsibilities than a bachelor's degree.

Some Terminal Master's Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Clinical Counseling Psychology Program at LaSalle University

This M.A. program has a concentration focus on psychological counseling, marriage and family therapy, and addictions counseling.
Clinical Psychology Program at Shippensburg University

Offering a M.S. degree in clinical psychology, this program stresses close faculty/student interaction. The university has special laboratories for psychological research.
Counseling Program at Loyola College

This program prepares students for positions in public or private settings as a mental health counselor.
Clinical Psychology Program at West Chester University

This program prepares students for work in human service settings. It also offers research work, work on faculty projects, and the completion of a master's thesis.

OPTIONS AND PAY RANGES WITH A DOCTORAL DEGREE: Clinical and counseling psychology offers two doctoral degrees: the Ph.D. and the Psy.D. Both are equally challenging, require the same amount of educational training, qualify for licensure, and earn about the same salary (about $57,000 in 1997). Most doctoral educational programs are designed to last 5 years; however, they often take 7 or 8 to complete. Ph.D. programs are designed more for training in research, while Psy.D. programs emphasize the counseling aspect of psychology. Almost all of psychologists with a Psy.D. can be found practicing psychology in counseling settings. Although, psychologists possessing a Ph.D. can also practice, they are more likely to be involved in research or teaching within the higher education system. Doctoral level psychologists also have the ability to obtain licensure and go into private practice. This cannot be achieved with either a bachelor's or master's degree. Furthermore, doctoral degrees provide more job opportunities and job flexibility than the other degrees.

Some Doctoral Degree Programs for Pursuing a Career in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Doctoral Project/Clinical Dissertation at California School of Professional Psychology

This Psy.D. program gives students a choice between completing a project or dissertation, depending on the specific campus. Students are evaluated on their ability to apply literature research to practical life.
Clinical Psychology at Widener University

This 5-year program combines the science of psychology with its clinical applications. The first three years are devoted to learning theoretical knowledge and clinical techniques.
Clinical Psychology at University of Maine

This is a Ph.D. program, which offers specialization in experimental psychology, cognitive-behavioral psychology, psychopathology, and clinical research.
Clinical Psychology at University of Pittsburgh

This Ph.D. program applies psychological and biological to the understanding of psychological disorders. Students also conduct their own research through externships.

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Employment Resources for Clinical and Counseling Psychology

Employment resources in the field of clinical and counseling psychology are difficult to find for bachelor's degrees. Most of these jobs are advertised locally in a newspaper. Employment for master's and doctoral degrees can be found locally or on the internet. Other employment resources are job fairs which can often be found at colleges or universities. At times it is even possible to receive on-the-spot interviews at job fairs. Another possible option for finding employment information involves contacting local psychological agencies or businesses. They may be able to provide valuable information, resources, and employment opportunities.

Some Resources for Exploring Careers and Career Prospects in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
American Psychological Association

This link is to a list of APA positions openings in counseling psychology.
APA Monitor

This site has job listings categorized by state, including international countries.

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Learning More About Clinical and Counseling Psychology

There are many possible ways to learn more about clinical and counseling psychology. The American Psychological Association (APA) has divisions to clinical and counseling psychology, as well as other interesting and related fields. Other possibilities include the large variety of psychological journals, which can be found in most libraries, specifically college and university libraries. Likewise, magazines like Newsweek and Psychology Today often publish recent articles about the current trends in the fields of clinical and counseling psychology. Finally, an extremely productive way of learning about clinical and counseling psychology involves interviewing someone working in the profession. For instance, psychologists in private practice or professors at college or universities can provide many insights about their profession.

Some General Resources for Learning More about Clinical and Counseling Psychology
The Division of Independent Practice of the APA

This Division of APA explores the issues surrounding practitioners and their patients. It provides strategies meant to help improve private practices so as to ensure their continuing existence.
Psychotherapy and Depression

This link discusses the general causes of depression, possible treatments, and the effectiveness of various treatments.

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Outlook

Clinical and counseling psychology are expected to grow at an average rate in the coming years, according to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (Bureau of Labor Statistics). However, because of the recent trend of health maintenance organizations (HMO's) psychologists with doctoral degrees are suffering. HMO's are sending their member's to psychologists with master's degrees because they charge less money for therapy. If a psychologist with a doctoral degree wishes to do therapy with clients belonging to HMO's, they must take salary cuts.

Other psychologists have been pushing for prescription privileges. According to Robert J. Sternberg, editor of Career Paths in Psychology: Where your Degree Can Take You (1999), this privilege would allow psychologists to prescribe medications to their clients. The American Psychiatric Association strongly objects to this because it would eventually eliminate the need for psychiatrists. Presently however, psychiatrists are in high demand. Due to their low numbers, psychiatrists are often required to work with several different agencies at one time. Considering all these factors and more, Sternberg (1999) suggests that practitioners in private practice may be negatively affected by the possibility of future changes. Others remain optimistic and feel these changes will never take place.

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Summary

Clinical and counseling psychology continues to be the largest area studied by psychology students. Within this career there are a number of different areas of specialization possible. This helps to make the career more interesting and exciting for students, as well as varying the typical day of a psychologist. Naturally, there are positive and negative aspects of clinical and counseling psychology. On the one hand, this field can be very personally rewarding; however, it often requires a great deal of education. Of the possible degrees earned by students, the doctoral degree offers the most career freedom, including the possibility to practice clinical or counseling psychology privately. Regardless, the future outlook on doctoral degrees predicts they will be in less demand on the job market than master's degrees. Perhaps more states will begin offering licensure to master's level graduates in the future. In conclusion, the field of clinical and counseling psychology is forever changing and will continue to grow so long as people require psychological assistance.

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Acknowledgments

This page was created by Jill Rishel in the spring of 2000 as a project for a Senior Seminar in Psychology (PSY400) class taught by Dr. Arvid J. Bloom at West Chester University. The author would like to give special recognition to Delores Marra, M.S., Deanne Zotter Bonifazi, Ph.D., and Gretchen Gill for the valuable information they contributed.


http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Clinical/Career03.htm


Psychologists

* Nature of the Work
* Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement
* Employment
* Job Outlook
* Projections Data
* Earnings
* OES Data
* Related Occupations
* Sources of Additional Information

Significant Points

* About 34 percent of psychologists are self-employed, compared with only 8 percent of all workers.
* Competition for admission to graduate psychology programs is keen.
* Overall employment of psychologists is expected to grow faster than average.
* Job prospects should be the best for people who have a doctoral degree in an applied specialty, such as counseling or health, and those with a specialist or doctoral degree in school psychology.

Nature of the Work [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology.

Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods vary with the topic under study. Psychologists sometimes gather information through controlled laboratory experiments or by administering personality, performance, aptitude, or intelligence tests. Other methods include observation, interviews, questionnaires, clinical studies, and surveys.

Psychologists apply their knowledge to a wide range of endeavors, including health and human services, management, education, law, and sports. They usually specialize in one of a number of different areas.

Clinical psychologists—who constitute the largest specialty—work most often in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally distressed clients adjust to life and may assist medical and surgical patients in dealing with illnesses or injuries. Some clinical psychologists work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, or neurological conditions. Others help people deal with personal crisis, such as divorce or the death of a loved one.

Clinical psychologists often interview patients and give diagnostic tests. They may provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy and may design and implement behavior modification programs. Some clinical psychologists collaborate with physicians and other specialists to develop and implement treatment and intervention programs that patients can understand and comply with. Other clinical psychologists work in universities and medical schools, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and behavioral medicine services. Some administer community mental health programs.

Areas of specialization within clinical psychology include health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Health psychologists study how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness. They promote healthy living and disease prevention through counseling, and they focus on how patients adjust to illnesses and treatments and view their quality of life. Neuropsychologists study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. Geropsychologists deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increasing participation of psychologists in direct services to special patient populations.

Often, clinical psychologists consult with other medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes medication. Clinical psychologists generally are not permitted to prescribe medication to treat patients; only psychiatrists and other medical doctors may prescribe most medications. (See the statement on physicians and surgeons elsewhere in the Handbook.) However, two States—Louisiana and New Mexico—currently allow appropriately trained clinical psychologists to prescribe medication with some limitations.

Counseling psychologists use various techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living, including career or work problems and problems faced in different stages of life. They work in settings such as university counseling centers, hospitals, and individual or group practices. (See also the statements on counselors and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

School psychologists work with students in early childhood and elementary and secondary schools. They collaborate with teachers, parents, and school personnel to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments for all students. School psychologists address students’ learning and behavioral problems, suggest improvements to classroom management strategies or parenting techniques, and evaluate students with disabilities and gifted and talented students to help determine the best way to educate them.

They improve teaching, learning, and socialization strategies based on their understanding of the psychology of learning environments. They also may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, prevention programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in the school setting.

Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of worklife. They also are involved in research on management and marketing problems. They screen, train, and counsel applicants for jobs, as well as perform organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to reorganize the work setting in order to improve productivity or quality of life in the workplace. Industrial psychologists frequently act as consultants, brought in by management to solve a particular problem.

Developmental psychologists study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life. Some specialize in behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, or changes that occur during maturity or old age. Developmental psychologists also may study developmental disabilities and their effects. Increasingly, research is developing ways to help elderly people remain independent as long as possible.

Social psychologists examine people’s interactions with others and with the social environment. They work in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems design, or other applied psychology fields. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and perception.

Experimental or research psychologists work in university and private research centers and in business, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. They study the behavior of both human beings and animals, such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of study in experimental research include motivation, thought, attention, learning and memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance abuse, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior.

Work environment. Psychologists’ work environments vary by subfield and place of employment. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice frequently have their own offices and set their own hours. However, they usually offer evening and weekend hours to accommodate their clients. Those employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care facilities may work shifts that include evenings and weekends, and those who work in schools and clinics generally work regular daytime hours. Most psychologists in government and industry have structured schedules.

Psychologists employed as faculty by colleges and universities divide their time between teaching and research and also may have administrative responsibilities; many have part-time consulting practices.

Increasingly, many psychologists work as part of a team, consulting with other psychologists and professionals. Many experience pressures because of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required in order to attend conferences or conduct research.


Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

A master’s or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for most psychologists.

Education and training. A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, health care services, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and government. Psychologists with a doctoral degree often work in clinical positions or in private practices, but they also sometimes teach, conduct research, or carry out administrative responsibilities.

A doctoral degree generally requires 5 to 7 years of graduate study, culminating in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computer-based analysis, are an integral part of graduate study and are necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, and school psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree include at least a 1-year internship.

A specialist degree or its equivalent is required in most States for an individual to work as a school psychologist, although a few States still credential school psychologists with master’s degrees. A specialist (Ed.S.) degree in school psychology requires a minimum of 3 years of full-time graduate study (at least 60 graduate semester hours) and a 1-year full-time internship. Because their professional practice addresses educational and mental health components of students’ development, school psychologists’ training includes coursework in both education and psychology.

People with a master’s degree in psychology may work as industrial-organizational psychologists. They also may work as psychological assistants under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists and may conduct research or psychological evaluations. A master’s degree in psychology requires at least 2 years of full-time graduate study. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting and a master’s thesis based on an original research project.

Competition for admission to graduate psychology programs is keen. Some universities require applicants to have an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only coursework in basic psychology with additional courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences and in statistics and mathematics.

A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs. Bachelor’s degree holders may also work as research or administrative assistants for psychologists. Some work as technicians in related fields, such as marketing research. Many find employment in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management.

In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry-level positions. However, competition for these jobs is keen because this is one of the few ways in which one can work as a psychologist without an advanced degree.

The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology, as well as institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. The National Association of School Psychologists, with the assistance of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, helps to approve advanced degree programs in school psychology.

Licensure. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care—including clinical, counseling, and school psychologists—must meet certification or licensing requirements in all States and the District of Columbia. Licensing laws vary by State and by type of position and require licensed or certified psychologists to limit their practice to areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. Clinical and counseling psychologists usually need a doctorate in psychology, an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, all States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State licensing boards administer a standardized test, and many supplement that with additional oral or essay questions. Some States require continuing education for renewal of the license.

The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) awards the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) designation, which recognizes professional competency in school psychology at a national, rather than State, level. Currently, 29 States recognize the NCSP and allow those with the certification to transfer credentials from one State to another without taking a new certification exam. In States that recognize the NCSP, the requirements for certification or licensure and those for the NCSP often are the same or similar. Requirements for the NCSP include the completion of 60 graduate semester hours in school psychology; a 1,200-hour internship, 600 hours of which must be completed in a school setting; and a passing score on the National School Psychology Examination.

Other qualifications. Aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, good communication skills, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important qualities for people wishing to do clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work both independently and as part of a team. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities, because achieving results in the psychological treatment of patients or in research may take a long time.

Certification and advancement. The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) recognizes professional achievement by awarding specialty certification in 13 different areas. Candidates for ABPP certification need a doctorate in psychology, postdoctoral training in their specialty, several years of experience, professional endorsements, and are required to pass the specialty board examination.

Psychologists can improve their advancement opportunities by earning an advanced degree and by participation in continuing education. Many psychologists opt to start their own practice after gaining experience working in the field.


Employment [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Psychologists held about 166,000 jobs in 2006. Educational institutions employed about 29 percent of psychologists in positions other than teaching, such as counseling, testing, research, and administration. About 21 percent were employed in health care, primarily in offices of mental health practitioners, hospitals, physicians’ offices, and outpatient mental health and substance abuse centers. Government agencies at the State and local levels employed psychologists in correctional facilities, law enforcement, and other settings.

After several years of experience, some psychologists—usually those with doctoral degrees—enter private practice or set up private research or consulting firms. About 34 percent of psychologists were self-employed in 2006, compared with only 8 percent of all professional workers.

In addition to the previously mentioned jobs, many psychologists held faculty positions at colleges and universities and as high school psychology teachers. (See the statements on teachers—postsecondary and teachers—preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary elsewhere in the Handbook.)


Job Outlook [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Faster-than-average employment growth is expected for psychologists. Job prospects should be the best for people who have a doctoral degree from a leading university in an applied specialty, such as counseling or health, and those with a specialist or doctoral degree in school psychology. Master’s degree holders in fields other than industrial-organizational psychology will face keen competition. Opportunities will be limited for bachelor’s degree holders.

Employment change. Employment of psychologists is expected to grow 15 percent from 2006 to 2016, faster than the average for all occupations. Employment will grow because of increased demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals, social service agencies, mental health centers, substance abuse treatment clinics, consulting firms, and private companies.

Employment growth will vary by specialty. Growing awareness of how students’ mental health and behavioral problems, such as bullying, affect learning will increase demand for school psychologists to offer student counseling and mental health services.

The rise in health care costs associated with unhealthy lifestyles, such as smoking, alcoholism, and obesity, has made prevention and treatment more critical. An increase in the number of employee assistance programs, which help workers deal with personal problems, also should lead to employment growth for clinical and counseling specialties. Clinical and counseling psychologists also will be needed to help people deal with depression and other mental disorders, marriage and family problems, job stress, and addiction. The growing number of elderly will increase the demand for psychologists trained in geropsychology to help people deal with the mental and physical changes that occur as individuals grow older. There also will be increased need for psychologists to work with returning veterans.

Industrial-organizational psychologists also will be in demand to help to boost worker productivity and retention rates in a wide range of businesses. Industrial-organizational psychologists will help companies deal with issues such as workplace diversity and antidiscrimination policies. Companies also will use psychologists’ expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to develop tools for marketing evaluation and statistical analysis.

Job prospects. Job prospects should be the best for people who have a doctoral degree from a leading university in an applied specialty, such as counseling or health, and those with a specialist or doctoral degree in school psychology. Psychologists with extensive training in quantitative research methods and computer science may have a competitive edge over applicants without such background.

Master’s degree holders in fields other than industrial-organizational psychology will face keen competition for jobs because of the limited number of positions that require only a master’s degree. Master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants or counselors, providing mental health services under the direct supervision of a licensed psychologist. Still others may find jobs involving research and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies.

Opportunities directly related to psychology will be limited for bachelor’s degree holders. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers.


Projections Data [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational title
SOC Code

Employment, 2006

Projected
employment,
2016

Change, 2006-16

Detailed statistics
Number

Percent

Psychologists

19-3030

166,000

191,000

25,000

15

PDF

zipped XLS

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

19-3031

152,000

176,000

24,000

16

PDF

zipped XLS

Industrial-organizational psychologists

19-3032

1,900

2,400

400

21

PDF

zipped XLS

Psychologists, all other

19-3039

12,000

13,000

900

8

PDF

zipped XLS

NOTE: Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.


Earnings [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Median annual earnings of wage and salary clinical, counseling, and school psychologists in May 2006 were $59,440. The middle 50 percent earned between $45,300 and $77,750. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,280, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $102,730. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of clinical, counseling, and school psychologists were:

Offices of mental health practitioners $69,510
Elementary and secondary schools 61,290
Local government 58,770
Individual and family services 50,780
Outpatient care centers 50,310

Median annual earnings of wage and salary industrial-organizational psychologists in May 2006 were $86,420. The middle 50 percent earned between $66,310 and $115,000. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,380, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $139,620.

For the latest wage information:

The above wage data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey program, unless otherwise noted. For the latest National, State, and local earnings data, visit the following pages:
# Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists
# Industrial-organizational psychologists
# Psychologists, all other


Related Occupations [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Psychologists work with people, developing relationships and comforting them. Other occupations with similar duties include counselors, social workers, clergy, sociologists, special education teachers, funeral directors, market and survey researchers, recreation workers, and human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists. Psychologists also sometimes diagnose and treat problems and help patients recover. These duties are similar to those for physicians and surgeons, radiation therapists, audiologists, dentists, optometrists, and speech-language pathologists.


Sources of Additional Information [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

Disclaimer:

Links to non-BLS Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.


For information on careers, educational requirements, financial assistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact:

* American Psychological Association, Center for Psychology Workforce Analysis and Research and Education Directorate, 750 1st St. NE., Washington, DC 20002. Internet: http://www.apa.org/students

For information on careers, educational requirements, certification, and licensing of school psychologists, contact:

* National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Hwy., Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet: http://www.nasponline.org

Information about State licensing requirements is available from:

* Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 241245, Montgomery, AL 36124. Internet: http://www.asppb.org

Information about psychology specialty certifications is available from:

* American Board of Professional Psychology, Inc., 300 Drayton St., 3rd Floor, Savannah, GA 31401. Internet: http://www.abpp.org



OOH ONET Codes [About this section] Back to Top Back to Top

19-3031.01, 19-3031.02, 19-3031.03, 19-3032.00, 19-3039.99


Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Psychologists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm (visited April 26, 2008).



Last Modified Date: December 18, 2007

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm


Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2006
19-3032 Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

Apply principles of psychology to personnel, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee screening, training and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity.

National estimates for this occupation
Industry profile for this occupation
State profile for this occupation
Metropolitan area profile for this occupation
National estimates for this occupation: Top

Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for this occupation:
Employment (1) Employment
RSE (3) Mean hourly
wage Mean annual
wage (2) Wage RSE (3)
1,140 14.1 % $43.23 $89,920 3.8 %

Percentile wage estimates for this occupation:
Percentile 10% 25% 50%
(Median) 75% 90%
Hourly Wage $23.26 $31.88 $41.55 $55.29 $67.13
Annual Wage (2) $48,380 $66,310 $86,420 $115,000 $139,620

Industry profile for this occupation: Top

Industries with the highest published employment and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all industries with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Industries with the highest levels of employment in this occupation:

Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services 330 $55.92 $116,300
Scientific Research and Development Services 210 $40.05 $83,300
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 70 $31.24 $64,980
Management of Companies and Enterprises 40 $38.17 $79,380
State Government (OES designation) 30 $24.23 $50,400

Top paying industries for this occupation:
Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services 330 $55.92 $116,300
Semiconductor and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing (8) $41.80 $86,950
Scientific Research and Development Services 210 $40.05 $83,300
Management of Companies and Enterprises 40 $38.17 $79,380
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 70 $31.24 $64,980

State profile for this occupation: Top

States with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all States with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

States with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
District of Columbia 50 $37.48 $77,960 0.008%
Virginia 100 $43.63 $90,750 0.003%
Ohio 90 $33.77 $70,240 0.002%
Pennsylvania 40 $36.03 $74,940 0.001%
Massachusetts 40 $33.40 $69,480 0.001%

Top paying States for this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
Colorado (8) $53.44 $111,150 (8)
Virginia 100 $43.63 $90,750 0.003%
Georgia (8) $41.33 $85,960 (8)
New Mexico (8) $38.99 $81,110 (8)
District of Columbia 50 $37.48 $77,960 0.008%

Metropolitan area profile for this occupation: Top

Metropolitan areas with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all Metropolitan areas with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Division 150 $41.62 $86,570 0.007%

Top paying Metropolitan areas for this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
St. Louis, MO-IL (8) $64.05 $133,220 (8)
New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division (8) $50.55 $105,140 (8)
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Division 150 $41.62 $86,570 0.007%
Albuquerque, NM (8) $40.59 $84,420 (8)

About May 2006 National, State, Metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in every State and the District of Columbia. The top five employment and wage figures are provided above. The complete list is available in the downloadable Excel files (XLS).

Percentile wage estimates show the percentage of workers in an occupation that earn less than a given wage and the percentage that earn more. The median wage is the 50th percentile wage estimate--50 percent of workers earn less than the median and 50 percent of workers earn more than the median. More about percentile wages.

(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

(8) Estimate not released.

Other OES estimates and related information:

May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Download May 2006 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates in Zipped Excel files

Technical notes



Last Modified Date: December 6, 2007

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193032.htm


19-3031 Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists

Diagnose and treat mental disorders; learning disabilities; and cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems using individual, child, family, and group therapies. May design and implement behavior modification programs.

National estimates for this occupation
Industry profile for this occupation
State profile for this occupation
Metropolitan area profile for this occupation
National estimates for this occupation: Top

Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for this occupation:
Employment (1) Employment
RSE (3) Mean hourly
wage Mean annual
wage (2) Wage RSE (3)
97,330 2.2 % $31.78 $66,110 1.5 %

Percentile wage estimates for this occupation:
Percentile 10% 25% 50%
(Median) 75% 90%
Hourly Wage $16.96 $21.78 $28.58 $37.38 $49.39
Annual Wage (2) $35,280 $45,300 $59,440 $77,750 $102,730

Industry profile for this occupation: Top

Industries with the highest published employment and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all industries with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Industries with the highest levels of employment in this occupation:

Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Elementary and Secondary Schools 40,320 $30.84 $64,140
Offices of Other Health Practitioners 10,460 $38.65 $80,400
Individual and Family Services 7,250 $27.76 $57,730
Outpatient Care Centers 5,030 $26.84 $55,820
Local Government (OES designation) 4,510 $29.46 $61,270

Top paying industries for this occupation:
Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services (8) $66.42 $138,150
Offices of Physicians 4,230 $45.63 $94,900
Employment Services (8) $42.71 $88,840
Other Ambulatory Health Care Services 40 $42.68 $88,760
Scientific Research and Development Services 570 $39.48 $82,120

State profile for this occupation: Top

States with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all States with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

States with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
Vermont 430 $29.21 $60,760 0.144%
Massachusetts 4,290 $29.06 $60,450 0.135%
Rhode Island 600 $34.25 $71,230 0.124%
New York 9,790 $36.22 $75,350 0.117%
District of Columbia 670 $29.52 $61,390 0.110%

Top paying States for this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
New Jersey 4,170 $44.50 $92,560 0.105%
California 13,520 $36.98 $76,920 0.090%
Ohio 3,130 $36.28 $75,460 0.058%
New York 9,790 $36.22 $75,350 0.117%
Rhode Island 600 $34.25 $71,230 0.124%

Metropolitan area profile for this occupation: Top

Metropolitan areas with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all Metropolitan areas with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
Taunton-Norton-Raynham, MA NECTA Division 170 $38.51 $80,110 0.368%
Napa, CA 190 $50.67 $105,390 0.298%
Worcester, MA-CT 590 $27.36 $56,910 0.241%
New Bedford, MA 130 $28.62 $59,530 0.199%
Idaho Falls, ID 100 $21.30 $44,310 0.199%

Top paying Metropolitan areas for this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL (8) $75.47 $156,980 (8)
Newark-Union, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division 1,710 $57.14 $118,850 0.170%
Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL (8) $53.16 $110,570 (8)
Morgantown, WV (8) $50.69 $105,430 (8)
Napa, CA 190 $50.67 $105,390 0.298%

About May 2006 National, State, Metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in every State and the District of Columbia. The top five employment and wage figures are provided above. The complete list is available in the downloadable Excel files (XLS).

Percentile wage estimates show the percentage of workers in an occupation that earn less than a given wage and the percentage that earn more. The median wage is the 50th percentile wage estimate--50 percent of workers earn less than the median and 50 percent of workers earn more than the median. More about percentile wages.

(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

(8) Estimate not released.

Other OES estimates and related information:

May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Download May 2006 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates in Zipped Excel files

Technical notes



Last Modified Date: December 6, 2007

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193031.htm


19-3039 Psychologists, All Other

All psychologists not listed separately.

National estimates for this occupation
Industry profile for this occupation
State profile for this occupation
Metropolitan area profile for this occupation
National estimates for this occupation: Top

Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for this occupation:
Employment (1) Employment
RSE (3) Mean hourly
wage Mean annual
wage (2) Wage RSE (3)
7,960 4.0 % $38.63 $80,360 3.8 %

Percentile wage estimates for this occupation:
Percentile 10% 25% 50%
(Median) 75% 90%
Hourly Wage $15.97 $25.88 $36.69 $46.07 $59.54
Annual Wage (2) $33,220 $53,820 $76,310 $95,820 $123,840

Industry profile for this occupation: Top

Industries with the highest published employment and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all industries with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Industries with the highest levels of employment in this occupation:

Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Federal Executive Branch (OES designation) 3,620 $37.43 $77,850
Offices of Other Health Practitioners 1,030 $33.23 $69,120
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 630 $40.63 $84,510
Offices of Physicians 560 $69.61 $144,790
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 520 $27.64 $57,490

Top paying industries for this occupation:
Industry Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage
Offices of Physicians 560 $69.61 $144,790
Scientific Research and Development Services 210 $44.15 $91,820
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 630 $40.63 $84,510
Federal Executive Branch (OES designation) 3,620 $37.43 $77,850
Local Government (OES designation) 100 $36.66 $76,250

State profile for this occupation: Top

States with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all States with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

States with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
New Mexico 140 $28.02 $58,280 0.018%
Maryland 330 $42.21 $87,790 0.013%
Rhode Island 60 $31.85 $66,250 0.012%
California 1,700 $48.19 $100,240 0.011%
Oregon 170 $39.60 $82,370 0.010%

Top paying States for this occupation:
State Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of State employment
California 1,700 $48.19 $100,240 0.011%
Florida 450 $42.83 $89,080 0.006%
Connecticut 90 $42.66 $88,740 0.005%
Maryland 330 $42.21 $87,790 0.013%
Alabama 70 $42.17 $87,720 0.004%

Metropolitan area profile for this occupation: Top

Metropolitan areas with the highest published employment concentrations and wages for this occupation are provided. For a list of all Metropolitan areas with employment in this occupation, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of workers in this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX 50 $32.73 $68,070 0.044%
Ann Arbor, MI 80 $32.67 $67,950 0.040%
Bethesda-Gaithersburg-Frederick, MD Metropolitan Division 150 $46.02 $95,720 0.027%
Framingham, MA NECTA Division 40 $40.99 $85,260 0.026%
Lexington-Fayette, KY 50 $27.50 $57,200 0.021%

Top paying Metropolitan areas for this occupation:
MSA Employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage Percent of MSA employment
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 150 $71.89 $149,530 0.008%
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA Metropolitan Division 520 $55.68 $115,820 0.013%
Bethesda-Gaithersburg-Frederick, MD Metropolitan Division 150 $46.02 $95,720 0.027%
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL Metropolitan Division 190 $45.42 $94,470 0.005%
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA 40 $43.97 $91,450 0.004%

About May 2006 National, State, Metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in every State and the District of Columbia. The top five employment and wage figures are provided above. The complete list is available in the downloadable Excel files (XLS).

Percentile wage estimates show the percentage of workers in an occupation that earn less than a given wage and the percentage that earn more. The median wage is the 50th percentile wage estimate--50 percent of workers earn less than the median and 50 percent of workers earn more than the median. More about percentile wages.

(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

Other OES estimates and related information:

May 2006 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2006 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Download May 2006 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates in Zipped Excel files

Technical notes



Last Modified Date: December 6, 2007

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm



Xavier Thompson's top career interests:

Songwriter/Musician

Athlete

Psychologist (I/O, Counselling or Sports)

Sports Analyst/Reporter

CEO of a company (eg. Record Company)



DIphoeniX

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6 Comments:

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